International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences

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Volume 7, Issue 7 (August, 2017)

The Role of External Protective Factors on Young Entrepreneurs’ Entrepreneurial Resilience: An Explorative Study
Author(s): Siti Hajar Kamaruddin, Jamiah Manap, Fazilah Idris, Haslinda Abdullah, Turiman Suandi, Nurliza Khalid      Pages: [1-12]
Abstract

To receive support is crucial among youth in order for them to achieve success in life as it could hinder social exclusion, especially for at-risk young people. Empowering the potentials of at-risk youth through the support of external protective factors may enhance and optimise their potency. This study explores the role of external protective factors in young entrepreneurs’ resilient development. This research is based on the thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews with five graduates from Baitulmal Skills Institution who are recognized by the Institution as successful entrepreneurs. This research has found four thematic external protective factors, which contributed to young entrepreneurs’ resilient development; namely getting support from educational institutions, good rapport with peers, supportive teaching staffs, youth-adult attachment and support in business management. The role of external protective factors in developing young entrepreneurs’ entrepreneurial resilience heavily relies on youth’s positive interaction with his/her environment. It is suggested that in the future, studies should focus on protective factors that concentrate on other types of at-risk youth who are able to develop positively.

Keywords

Youth Development, Resiliency, Protective Factor, Entrepreneurship.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i7/3069
Abstract

It is evident that, social culture for many years has been a predicament or challenge to international business around the world because, the social culture of one country is different with that of another country. This article is dealing with social culture and it effect on international business in Makeni Bombali district, Sierra Leone. In this article, there are two main focuses. The first focus is, to investigate what understanding do the Addax Bioenergy company manager, employee and community resident in the area where Addax Bioenergy company is operating know about the concepts of social culture and international business. Secondly, is to investigate how social culture affect Addax Bioenergy company, employee and community resident in the area where Addax Bioenergy is operating (Makeni Bombali district). The findings of this article were obtained from three categories of informant. These are manager, employee of Addax Bioenergy company and community resident in Makeni Bombali district (the people living in the area where Addax Bioenergy company is operating). This article gives a conclusion and recommendations that will be of importance or significant to future researchers, international businesses and companies, government and investors.

Keywords

Social, Culture, International, Business, Makeni

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i7/3073
Assessing the Effect of Innovative Performance on Firm Performance: The Case of Footwear Industry
Author(s): Emel GELMEZ, Mehtap OZTURK, Derya OZILHAN OZBEY      Pages: [22-28]
Abstract

Innovation is becoming fastly an important factor in firm performance and sustainable competitive advantage as a result of the evolution of the changing environment. In that vein, firms innovate to create value and maintain or enhance their competitive position in the market. Innovative performance in the narrow sense refers to results for companies in terms of the degree to which they actually introduce inventions into the market. The main purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between innovative performance and firm performance. The survey of this study is conducted on 80 firms operating in the footwear industry in Konya, Turkey. The data utilized in the study was obtained via questionnaire method. The obtained data from the questionnaires are analyzed through the SPSS statistical package program. Analysis results revealed that, there is a statistically significant and positive relationship between innovative performance and firm performance.

Keywords

Innovative Performance, Firm Performance, Footwear Industry.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i7/3074
Abstract

This paper examined the financial accounting practices of SMEs drawing on a survey of 225 owner-managers in Ho Municipality. The results revealed that majority of SMEs failed to keep proper accounting records pertaining to their businesses. Consequently, it was difficult for the owner-managers to determine the profit earned or loss suffered in the business during a particular accounting period in addition to the position of assets and liabilities to be able to strategize and make certain adjustments on their businesses.The major reasons for the entities failure to maintain proper accounting records and prepare a complete set of financial statements included high cost of hiring qualified accountants and lack of accounting knowledge on the part of some owner-managers. It is recommended that the National Board for Small Scale Industries (NBSSI) in collaboration with the accounting bodies should organize accounting training programmes for owner-managers of SMEs on proper bookkeeping and accounting practices.

Keywords

Accounting Information, Accounting Practices, Accounting records, Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (SMEs), Owner-Managers

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i7/3075
Bank Fraud and Preventive Measures in Nigeria: An Empirical Review
Author(s): Dr. Enofe, A.O., Abilogun, T.O., Omoolorun, A. J.      Pages: [40-51]
Abstract

This study examines the measures for fraud prevention in banking industry. Primary data were used for this study. This study was carried out by collecting data from 15 quoted commercial banks in Nigeria as at 31st December, 2015. The study utilized ordinary least square regression model. It was observed that strong internal control system, good corporate governance and compliance with banking ethics have positive and significant influence on fraud prevention in banking industry. This indicates that a commitment in the implementation of the variables of this study will reduce fraud, errors and misappropriations in the banking sector. The study recommended that banking institutions should establish and ensure effective and strict implementation of all these variables which is strong enough to prevent fraud, errors and misappropriations.

Keywords

Fraud Triangle, Internal Control System, Corporate Governance, Compliance with Banking Ethics.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i7/3076
Measuring the Maturity of a Factory for Industry 4.0
Author(s): Alaeddin KOSKA, Nusret GOKSU, Mehri Banu ERDEM, H.Secil FETTAHLIOGLU      Pages: [52-60]
Abstract

In recent years, the industry is evolving to fully digitize and intelligentize its production processes. This study primarily aims to be a guide to managers who want to raise their plants to the industry 4.0 level. Second objective is to help a manufacturing operation find out the answers to the questions of “which industry level we are in?” and on which level we want to be? According to the findings, this research shows that the chosen company is far from the industry 4.0 level. The company's industry maturity average was 2.44, which is also the middle of the 20th century, when the industry represented 2.0.

Keywords

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i7/3077
The Experience of Workplace Spirituality: Do Age and Educational Attainment Matter?
Author(s): Wan Rahim Wan Yunan, Aminah Ahmad, Zoharah Omar      Pages: [62-69]
Abstract

We examined the experience of workplace spirituality with respect to its three dimensions namely, meaningful work (sense of purpose in work), sense of community (sense of relationship with others at work), and value allignment (match between employee and organization’s values). We also compare the experience of spirituality among younger and older employees and among those with different levels of educational attainment. Using self-administered survey questionnaires, we collected data from 274 Malaysian public service employees involved in poverty alleviation programs in the rural sector. The experience of workplace spirituality is considerably high for all the three dimensions, especially so for meaningful work. Workplace spirituality did not differ significantly by employee age but differed significantly by employee educational attainment. The experience of workplace spirituality for all the three dimensions were greater among employees with college and university education than their counterparts with high school education. Implications for human resource development and future research are presented.

Keywords

Workplace spirituality, age, educational attainment, public service, Malaysia

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i7/3078
Illegal Street Racers’ Behavior: The Proposed Theory
Author(s): Mohd Roslan Mohd Tahir, Haziah Sa’ari, Rusnah Johare      Pages: [70-82]
Abstract

This paper reviews the nature of the illegal street racers’ behavior and theories underlying risky behavior of illegal street racers to understand factors that influence individual behavior to commit illegal street racing. Generally, there are several theories could be applied to study street racing behavior which include the choice theory, the trait theory, the psychodynamic theory, behavioral theory among others. The findings of the reviews concluded that the most suitable theory to study the behavior of the street racers are the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) developed by Ajzen (1985,1991). These theories suggested that reasoned action and planned behaviors are associated to individual attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavior control. This paper presents the process of how these theories could be used as the theoretical framework for studying the Malaysian illegal motorcycles street racers termed “Mat Rempit”.

Keywords

Illegal street racers, Theory of Reasoned Action, Theory of Planned Behavior, attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavior control.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i7/3082
Influence of Financial Reporting Requirement on Formalizing Small and Medium Enterprises in Kenya
Author(s): Damaris W. Muhika, Agnes W. Njeru, Esther Waiganjo      Pages: [83-100]
Abstract

This research article sought to establish the influence of financial reporting requirement in formalizing small and micro enterprises in Kenya. The study took the form of a descriptive survey design which is an efficient method of collecting original data and systematic information from a wide range of respondents. The target population was 1200 SME’s operating in Nairobi Central Business District and registered with the Nairobi County government. The sample size was 369 respondents, calculated using Yamane Sampling Formula. The study employed stratified and systematic random sampling to select SME’s from 4 different sectors and also incorporated commercial banks and microfinance institutions in the sampling distribution. Data was collected by use of open and close-ended questionnaires supplemented by an interview schedule and an observation checklist. The researcher used descriptive and inferential statistics such as mean, standard deviation, correlation and multiple regression analysis. The study findings showed that availability of financial records eliminate information asymmetry thus allowing for better monitoring. Further, availability of quality and credible financial information enhances business access to loan facilities and better credit terms. The study recommended that the SMEs need to formalize their operations to ease credit access from lenders hence realize growth and improved performance.

Keywords

SMEs, Credit Access Requirements, Formalization

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i7/3083
Abstract

This study was set out to investigate the influence of top management and organisation resources on implementation of strategic plans in public sector using selected executive agencies as a case study; and carried out in five executive agencies in Tanzania. The study used simple random sampling to select five (5) agencies; and convenient sampling to obtain fifty (50) respondents. Primary data were collected using questionnaires; then were analysed using of SPSS and Excel spread sheet; while documentary review was used to collect secondary data. The study found that, top management influence implementation of strategic plans as average of 68% of respondents agreed on the supports received from top management during implementation process; and average of 67% of respondents agreed that, resources such as human and financial are very key in the implantation process of strategic plans in public sector. Therefore, top management and organisation resources positively influence implementation of strategic plans in the public sector with purpose improving quality service delivery. The study recommended on the need for resources such as finance, skilled human resources to be given priority by top management; and enhancement of better prioritization of resource allocation and utilization; and this will create value and improve delivery of quality service in public sector; finally, the management should align the resources towards achieving organisation objectives.

Keywords

Strategy Implementation, Public sector, Organisation Resources, Top Management, Tanzania Executive Agencies

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i7/3084
Abstract

This study aimed to investigate the nature of relationship among the antecedents of psychological empowerment and workplace consequences. Moreover, the mediating role of psychological empowerment on the relationship among the culture of an organization, structural empowerment, and the consequences related to work has also been assessed. The data collection has been done through questionnaires, and quantitative research design was applied to generate the research outcomes. Faculty staff of private Jordanian universities was recruited for collecting data. It has been determined from the results that the structural and psychological empowerments are important predictors of the organizational commitment and job satisfaction. It has been concluded that in the context of higher education, the psychological empowerment seems to be a fundamental aspect in bringing enhancements in the attitudes of work outcomes of the faculty staff.

Keywords

Psychological empowerment, Workplace consequences, Mediating role, Antecedents, Jordan.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i7/3085
Parenting Styles for the Deaf Children in Disseminating Entrepreneurship
Author(s): Nyuherno Aris Wibowo, Fulgentinus Danardana Murwani, Ludi Wishnu Wardana      Pages: [143-163]
Abstract

This study aims at examining parenting styles for the deaf children in disseminating entrepreneurship. This research employed case study approach using the semi-structured interview technique from parents of deaf children. The result indicated that parenting styles was dominantly by authoritarian, in term of nurturing the children as well as educating responsibility. In addition, the deaf children were also employed by democratic style in encouraging the interest of them. This study also found that parenting styles in disseminating entrepreneurship were influenced by several factors, such as a limited time allocation to learn business and a talent of the children.

Keywords

Parenting Styles, Deaf Children, Entrepreneurship

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i7/3086
Development and Validation of Teachers’ Commitment to Change Scale
Author(s): Fanny Kho Chee Yuet      Pages: [164-178]
Abstract

This study focused on the development of Teachers’ Commitment to Change Scale (TCCS) and to validate the adapted instrument based on the belief that individual needs motivation to enhance owns capability to perform a task successfully and efficiently. This instrument was envisioned to measure a variation of overall features of commitment to change. The original version of Commitment to Change Scale (CCS) was validated as having four constructs: personal goals, context beliefs, capacity beliefs, and emotional arousal process. Nonetheless, for the purpose of this study, only three of the constructs were chosen, namely personal goals, capacity beliefs, and context beliefs. It was distributed to 145 school teachers, who were required to respond to a 10-point Likert scale. The respondents were selected through purposive sampling procedure. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS software package. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted prior to performing confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Thus, the TCCS would benefit school principals in assessing the teachers’ commitment in assuming new leadership roles in school change initiatives.

Keywords

Teachers’ commitment, personal goals, context beliefs, capacity beliefs, leadership roles.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i7/3087
Abstract

This paper focuses on the facets of the concept of syntactic control of matrix language in code switching instances in a multilingual society, that is, Mwea East Sub-County, Kirinyaga County where eight languages are spoken. Observations and Audio tapes were used to collect data in specific language domains. The data were examined within the sketch of Myers-Scotton’s Matrix Language Framework that deals with morphosyntactic frame of code switching instances. The result of the investigation established that code switching is a rule-governed linguistic behaviour and so has a grammar. The data shows that for a multilingual speaker, the process of alternating between two languages requires a nonrandom, sophisticated cognitive and linguistic manipulation of their languages. Thus, CS is systematic because each participating language is systematic, particularly in the ways that form-meaning sets are structured. This study hopes to provide insights on the code-switching phenomenon in a multilingual society. Additionally, the findings of this study will be of value for the development of code-switching studies in the sociolinguistic area.

Keywords

Code Switching, Syntactic Control, Matrix Language, Multilingualism

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i7/3088
Chinese-American Consumption of Financial Service: A Cultural Framework
Author(s): Fang Zhao, Jie Sun, Raj Devasagayam, Gary Clendenen      Pages: [192-206]
Abstract

While the Latino/Hispanic segment of US population has garnered the most attention from the practice and research of financial services marketers, the Asian and Pacific Islanders segment has received less attention. The Asian and Pacific Islanders is among the fastest growing segment of our population and this study focuses on this group to start a fruitful research theme. In today’s diverse and fast changing world, financial advisors must consider the impact of origin and culture on whether—and how—consumers choose to take advantage of their services. In order to serve these clients well, financial advisors need to know where these clients come from and the implication that has for services offered. The purpose of this study is to identify the financial traits and attitudes of Chinese-Americans, including attitudes toward risk, savings, asset allocation, international investment, and the need for financial advisors. Our research sets the stage for future empirical investigations that will enrich the understanding of academics and practitioners alike.

Keywords

Chinese-Americans, Consumption Of Financial Services, Attitudes Toward Risk, Savings, Asset Allocation, International Investment, And Cultural Influences

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i7/3089
Abstract

One can notice in nowadays organizations it is a common fact to find teams composed of members of different nationalities. It was the author’s curiosity to find out why do managers prefer to work with people of different nationalities and which are the advantages that a multicultural team has to offer. Many studies focused on finding out what effect has the cultural diversity on team outcomes. After analyzing the previous studies, one can conclude that the cultural diversity plays also a positive and a negative role on team performance. A case study was conducted in the romanian tourism organizations to find out if multicultural teams obtain better performances than monocultural teams. The sample was composed of 30 teams similar in terms of work processes and tasks, size, percentage of males and females (15 monocultural teams and 15 multicultural teams) and the method used to collect the data was the structured survey. The instrument used to interpretate the data was the five Likert scale. The results showed that multicultural teams obtain higher scores, are more inovative and offer new ideas and perspectives, but their members are more individualist when it comes to help others. Although the communication is more intense inside the multicultural teams, it hasn’t been demonstrated it is related to work issues. This research could be a starting point for future studies on the relationship between cultural diversity and team performance.

Keywords

Cultural Diversity, Team Performance, Multicultural Team, Monocultural Team, Survey

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i7/3090
Improving ESL Students’ Descriptive Writing through Wh-Question Technique
Author(s): Premmilah Namasivayam, Charanjit Kaur Swaran Singh, Nor Azmi Mostafa, Lajiman Janoory, Maria Shu Abdullah      Pages: [219-231]
Abstract

This study examined the use of Wh-questions technique in English as Second language (ESL) writing class specifically descriptive writing. The objective of this study is to investigate whether the Wh-questions technique is effective for descriptive writing. The study is an action research with an experimental design involving 22 participants. The students were required to compose descriptive essay before and after the treatment which were treated as pre-test and post-test. Apart from that, an unstructured interview was conducted to identify the students’ perception towards the use of Wh-questions technique. The outcome of this study proves that the Wh-questions technique is an effective pre-writing technique for ESL Malaysian secondary school students. Students indicated positive perceptions towards the use Wh-questions technique in descriptive writing.

Keywords

Wh-questions technique, descriptive writing, writing in ESL, pre-writing technique.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i7/3091
Factors Influencing Demand for Micro Insurance Services in the Insurance Industry in Kenya
Author(s): Zulekha Ndurukia, Agnes W. Njeru, Esther Waiganjo      Pages: [232-259]
Abstract

This article assessed the factors influencing demand for micro insurance services in the insurance industry in Kenya. In research methodology, the study adopted cross sectional survey design. The target population was insurance service providers in Kenya licensed by the Insurance Regulatory Authority (IRA). Sampling technique was stratified random sampling. The research instrument was a questionnaire. Analysis of the data was done using (SPSS). Analysis of data was done using descriptive and inferential statistics. Regression and correlation analysis was done to test the relationship between the study variables. The study findings indicated that there was a positive and significant influence between factors and the demand for micro insurance. The study concluded that micro insurance demand is affected by economical and structural factors and that the potential is yet to be exploited. The study recommended that awareness and education be conducted to the intended mass; flexible and convenience payment option be availed; easy access to credit; the regulator to put in place a framework for micro insurance and the government to offer subsidies and incentives towards micro insurance services.

Keywords

Micro insurance, demand, determinants, financial factors, Insurance companies in Kenya.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i7/3092
Al-Syatibi Methodology Analysis In The Unification Of Usul Al-Fiqh Methods
Author(s): Fathullah Al Haq Muhamad Asni      Pages: [260-268]
Abstract

Imam al-Syatibi is a great figure in Islamic law knowledge. He wrote a lot on the understanding method of Islamic legal resources to create unity of views and ijtihad. Among them is by linking the Usul Method with Maqasid syariah (syarak objective). Al-Syatibi also outlines the understanding of the method of amar and nahi, mafhum mukhalafah and unification between two opposing arguments to produce uniformity of legal views. Among the reasons for this effort is because the differences between ijtihad among mujtahid may bring a conflict to the community and governance of law and fatwa. Even though the difference in opinion can lead to goodness and grace, it has recently been the opposite. The attitude of some extremists to their follow-up figures will cause fights and partly confuses other members of society. Hence, the study of the al-Syatibi methodology is conducted to look at his efforts in standardising the usul method. This research is done qualitatively by referring to the debates of the usul fiqh books. The study found that among the main elements of al-Syatibi in the standardisation of the usul method was to use maqasid al-Syariah. The study suggests that the theory brought by al-Syatibi will rise to the ranks of official fatwa bodies, especially in Malaysia with 14 official fatwa departments, in order that the fatwa or legal decisions issues will uniforms.

Keywords

Al-Syatibi, Usul Fiqh, Fatwa, Maqasid Syariah, Law

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i7/3093
Towards developing a framework on happiness and productivity among personnel in Institution of Higher Learning
Author(s): Raidah Mazuki, Asnarulkhadi Abu Samah, Siti Zobidah Omar, Dahlia Zawawi, Khairuddin Idris, Jeffrey Lawrence D’Silva, Hayrol Azril Mohammed Shaffril, Dzuhailmi Dahlan, Nurani Kamaruddin, Nurul Akhtar Kamaruddin, Nor Aini Mohamad      Pages: [269-278]
Abstract

Happiness undeniably facilitates staff’s productivity in the workplace. Productivity could be changed by the developments in the level of knowledge, income or the technology innovation. The focus of this paper is to ascertain the prospective factors that will influence the level of productivity among personnel in Institution in Higher Learning. Numerous factors were identified and it will be a useful input for future researchers that are seeking directions to investigate the contributing factors of productivity in a higher learning institution.

Keywords

Happiness, Productivity, Higher Learning Institution

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i7/3094
Conflict Resolution in Improving Management-Students Relations in Learning Institutions in Kenya
Author(s): Agnes Kinanu Mungania, John M. Kihoro      Pages: [279-286]
Abstract

Rapid changes in university structure and mission present various conflicts that require effective management. This article evaluates the effectiveness of distributive bargaining, integrative bargaining, and interactive problem solving models of conflict resolution in facilitating positive change in management and student’s expectancies and attitude. Conflict has occurred across generations and centuries with one of the first recorded conflicts between the brothers Cain and Abel (Barclay & Wolff, 2011). According to Deutsch and Coleman (2000), conflict occurs between people in all kinds of human relationships and in all social settings (Fisher et al., 2000). Conflict is an inevitable part of any relationship, and maneuvering through an interpersonal conflict is a skill every person must learn (Scott, 2008). In as much as disputes are inevitable if not handled well, they can collapse an organization or an institution causing havocs which can be expressed in form of strikes and even death. On the other hand disputes can have positive outcomes such as stimulating creativity and interest and ideas generation if for instance students and management enter into dialogue and participation on pertinent issues. To reduce unhealthy outcomes out of disputes, various strategies both in house and use of third party mechanisms and interpersonal techniques can be applied. When these strategies are put into considerations cordial relations amongst parties is enhanced which results in good relations between them. As a result, organizations enjoy higher productivity, employees enjoy good working environment and students are able to achieve their dreams by being in conducive study environments and parents as well enjoy good returns of their money when students perform well towards achieving their desired goals.

Keywords

Conflict Resolution, Management-Student Relation, Institutions of Learning

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i7/3095
Abstract

With the globalization and the Airline Deregulation Act in 1978, there has been a great deal of change and development around the world in airports. Airport revenues and airport commercial activities are among the areas where this development is most felt. Over time, the airport operators went through changes in their commercial activities, with the increase in aeronautical revenues and non-aeronautical revenues, and at the same time proportional change was observed as well. In this study, based on official data, the structure of aeronautical revenues and non-aeronautical revenues belonging to five of Europe’s busiest airports in terms of number of passengers was evaluated by vertical percentage analysis and trend analysis method. In the scope of the study, the financial data of the selected five airport operators for the period between 2008 and 2015 were examined and it was aimed to determine the financial status of the airports and the change by years. Besides, the financial situation of the airports has been reviewed and some suggestions have been made.

Keywords

Airport Revenues, Aeronautical Revenues, Non-aeronautical Revenues, Trend Analysis, Vertical Percentage Analysis

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i7/3096
The Impact of Emotional Intelligence on Team Performance and Learning Organization of Employees
Author(s): Canan Gamze BAL, Ibrahim FIRAT      Pages: [304-325]
Abstract

Employees who have high level Intelligence Quotien (IQ) is not enough for today’s corporation. Workers also must have Emotional Intelligence (EQ) a certain extent to achieve success. In the corporate that employees who have high EQ, it seems that relations and connection can become much more effective, rise performance by creating team spirt, create work place more happy and peaceful. Despite, emotional intelligence, is individual concept, the role of emotions and emotional intelligence has increasingly came into prominence in researches. In this study, especially, it was analyzed degree of influence of emotional intelligence on team performance and learning organization and also the mediation role of learning organization in the effect of emotional intelligence on team performance. Emotional intelligence was independent variable and team performance and learning organisation were dependent variables. Hierarchial structural equation modelling and mediator variable modelling are used at form of model.

Keywords

Emotional Intelligence, Team Performance, Learning Organisation

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i7/3097
Mediation in the Case of Appropriating a Found Good or Mistakenly Taken by the Offender
Author(s): Nicoleta-Elena Buzatu      Pages: [326-330]
Abstract

The right to a mediator is a fundamental right in the new criminal legislation, being expressly mentioned in articles 81 and 83 from the New Criminal Procedure Code, as a personal right – but shared by both the victim and the defendant. Mediation cannot even take place without the involvement of both parties and only if it is possible for both of them. By incriminating these actions, the Romanian legislator sought to create a protection for the patrimony of every person or legal entity, establishing to this effect an obligation to surrender the found goods or to not unlawfully dispose of them.

Keywords

Mediation, Procedure, Crime, Goods, Offender

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i7/3104
Climate Change: A Review of Its Nexus with Rice Sector and Food Security in Malaysia
Author(s): R. B. Radin Firdaus, Zahri Hamat, Mohamad Shaharudin Samsurijan, Abdul Rais Abdul Latiff, Paramjit Singh Jamir Singh, Mohamad Haizzan Yahaya, Kumarashwaren Vadevelu      Pages: [331-344]
Abstract

Climate change is a global problem wherein not a single country can escape from its externalities. Malaysia has been no exception to these externalities as future climate scenario indicates a worrying trend. Thus, future development of Malaysian rice sector would expect to encounter multiple challenges ahead, which includes the diverse alterations of the earth as the climate is warming, limited arable land as well as social and economic transition. This study is therefore aimed to unravel the nexus between rice sector, food security and climate change. In order to review the nexus, this study relied on literature research. This study is of the opinion that even though the agricultural sector is no longer a major contributor to the national economy, but in the context of paddy or rice, the concern on the impacts of climate change should be acknowledged beyond the economic perspectives and point of views. In fact, future consideration and direction of this sector should take into account the importance of paddy crop to rural small-scale farmers’ livelihoods and the role of rice in ensuring the stability and continuance of staple food supply for the country. If climate change dampens the government’s initiatives to increase rice self-sufficiency level (SSL) in the future, the national food security will certainly be at risk. In addition, the livelihood of farmers will be affected, especially the small scaled as paddy cultivation is their only source of income. Hence, the intervention policy by the government in the future should give due emphasize to strategies that are focused on enhancing the adaptation capacity of paddy farmers to alleviate their vulnerabilities to climate change.

Keywords

Rice, Paddy, Agriculture, Food security, Climate Change

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i7/3105
The Impact of Middle East Conflict on the Jordanian Economy
Author(s): Naim Al-Qadi, Basem Lozi      Pages: [345-355]
Abstract

The purpose of this study was to explore the challenges that Jordanian economy may have to face based on different scenarios in his macro-environment. Specifically, the study focused on the development in the Iraqi, Syria and Palestinians fronts and their impact on the Jordanian economy. An exploratory research method was utilized. The study findings revealed that the majority of Jordanians believed that the level of conflicts at the three fronts are more likely to continue as is “no war-no peace”. Jordanians showed a tendency to be more optimistic than pessimistic about the reach for a final settlement for the three conflicts. However, Jordanians showed more concern for the situation in Palestine than it is in Iraq and Syria. Conclusion/Recommendations: were provided for Jordanian policy makers to deal with economic issues based on each scenario.

Keywords

Emerging Economy, Jordan Economy, Scenarios, and Future Prospects.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i7/3106
Analyzing the Impact of Strategic Thinking Competencies in Building Intelligent Organization
Author(s): Hasan Ali Al-Zu’bi, Mustafa Suleiman Al -Nawasrah      Pages: [356-365]
Abstract

The study aimed to identify the strategic thinking and its impact on building intelligent organizations in the King Abdullah II Design and Development Bureau. The study population consisted of all companies at King Abdullah II Design and Development Bureau, It was selected as a random sample of (120) managers and their assistants, heads of departments and supervisors of production. The study reached a number of results, the most important of which is that there is a statistically significant impact of the strategic thinking competences (systemic thinking, innovative thinking and vision-oriented thinking) in building the intelligent organization. One of the most important recommendations of the study is that it is necessary to focus on strategic thinking in order to enhance the capabilities and focus on the building of the intelligent organization.

Keywords

Strategic Thinking, Strategic Thinking, Competencies, Intelligent Organization, Jordan.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i7/3107
Abstract

At this era of internet, our daily lives are increasingly overshadowed by information technologies (Its), when most of us are engaged in internet purchasing as a daily activity. Despite of a huge body of studies well done in developed countries; just few researches have been conducted on cognitive Online advertising business as a means to making a purchase decision stages in developing countries context. This study intended to consider the result of exposure to advertisement online, and some demographic characteristics of employees toward stages of making a purchase decision. To do this, statistical package for social science was employed. The result of analysis on 90 employee samples revealed that the exposure to advertisement online by the employees, and demographic characteristics of them significantly affect the stages of making a purchase decision.

Keywords

Purchase decision stages, Advertisement online, Demographic characteristics.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i7/3108
Volunteerism, Organizational Justice and Organizational Commitment: The Case of Sport Coaches in Malaysian Schools
Author(s): Ooi Cheng Lee, Aminuddin Yusof, Soh Kim Geok, Zoharah Omar      Pages: [387-401]
Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of volunteer coaches in Malaysian schools about the relationship between organisational justice and organisational commitment. A cross-sectional correlational study using mail survey was conducted on 750 Malaysian school volunteer coaches. The subjects were selected using proportionate stratified and simple random sampling techniques. The data were analysed using structural equation modeling with AMOS. Path analysis showed that only interpersonal justice was related to affective commitment. Interpersonal justice creates a sense of belongingness and internalisation with the organisation value and norm, thus fostering higher affective commitment by willing to stay and strive for organisational goals. The results also show interpersonal justice to be negatively related with continuance commitment. This suggests that by providing fairer interpersonal treatment (i.e. interpersonal justice), the authorities would lower the volunteer coaches’ psychological engagements in continuance commitment. Distributive justice was found to be significantly related to normative commitment. Based on social exchange theory (Blau, 1964) if volunteer coaches are given opportunity through providing fair resources allocation and sports equipment, they would harness their effort to fully engage in coaching, in exchange, they would increase their normative commitment.

Keywords

Coaching, Sports Volunteerism, High School Sports

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i7/3109
Abstract

This study was intended to explore the difficulties experienced by translators and interpreters as they strive to find equivalences during translation and interpretation exercises. With the observed changes in phenomena and increased innovations globally, it is expected that the translators and interpreters would ideally need to keep at par with the resultant development and even changes in choices of lexical items to be able to render their messages from the source texts (ST) into the target texts (TT) both effectively and efficiently. In doing this, the translators and interpreters may need to apply various approaches. This study used secondary data which included excerpts from texts translated from English into Kiswahili and from English into French. The analyzed data indicate that the translators will usually find it so difficult to find equivalence of some terminologies in Kiswahili and in French. Consequently, a number of strategies are employed by translators and interpreters to ensure effective and efficient translation and interpretation.

Keywords

Translation, Interpretation, source text (ST), source language (SL), target text (TT), target language (TL)

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i7/3110