International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences

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Volume 7, Issue 6 (June, 2017)

A Preliminary Study on Sustainable Management of Pineapple Waste: Perspective of Smallholders
Author(s): Nur Aziera Ruslan , Nur Fatin Munirah Aris, Nasuddin Othman , Abdul Rahman Saili, Muhamad Zahid Muhamad , Nur Nabila Huda Aziz      Pages: [1-7]
Abstract

Recently, pineapple wastes are produced in bulk quantities throughout the world, with rising issues on environmental impact. Pineapple leaf is one of the waste materials that are abundantly being dumped, decomposed and burnt. The objective of this study was to discover the perspective of smallholders toward sustainable management of pineapple waste. This study was conducted at Muar, Johor among 30 pineapple’s smallholders. This study used simple random sampling to ensure that each of the pineapple’s smallholders has an equal probability to be selected as respondent. Based on reliability analysis, the questionnaire used in this preliminary study is very reliable and confirms internal consistency of the measurements of variables (? = 0.938). The finding indicates that the smallholders have the knowledge on pineapple waste management. They also have positive perspective towards the practice. However, there are several barriers that limit them to manage the waste such as time constraints, high cost and availability of outdated technology. Therefore, all the relevant authorities should look into this matter to generate income to the industry.

Keywords

Sustainable Management, Pineapple Waste, Perspective, Smallholders, Knowledge

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i6/2937
Impact of Strategic Leadership on Employee Performance
Author(s): Muhammad Zia-ud-Din, Muhammad Aqib Shabbir, Saad Bin Asif, Muhammad Bilal, Mahmood Raza      Pages: [8-22]
Abstract

The research tends to identify the connection among the strategic leadership on Employee performance. Strategic leadership creates a unique relation between management and employees to enhance employee performance. In this study we also explore the mediating impact of work engagement among strategic leadership and employee performance. Convenience sampling is used as the sampling strategy. Total 130 questionnaires are distributed among the respondents of the study. 120 questionnaires are fairly attempted with the response rate of 92.3%. To analyse the data, SPSS version 21 is used. To check the relationship between the variables correlation analysis is used which shows the significant relationship between the variables. To check the impact of one variable on other regression analysis is used which have clearly shown that strategic leadership has significant impact on employee performance. Thus, all the hypotheses presented significant outcomes. Thus, learning will guide the leaders of administrations to number out the part of strategic leadership to enhance employee’s performance for the upcoming cut-throat tests in global commercial competition.

Keywords

Strategic leadership, work engagement, Employee performance, task performance, contextual performance

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i6/2938
Financial Development and Economic Growth: The Case of Turkey and Romania
Author(s): Celil AYDIN, Fatma Gundogdu ODABASIOGLU      Pages: [23-38]
Abstract

In this study, the role of inflation threshold effect in the relationship between financial development and economic growth has been investigated for Turkey and Romania in period 1999:Q1 - 2015:Q1 and 2002:Q4 -2015Q2 respectively. At the first stage, inflation threshold value has been detected and after that financial development-economic growth relation has been examined for both countries using threshold autoregressive (TAR) model. Results indicate that there is one threshold value in Turkey, whereas there are two in Romania. Previous studies support that financial development may promote economic growth. However, the findings of this study suggest that it can only be achieved under low and moderate inflation. In addition, under the first regime which is below the threshold level, financial development significantly promotes growth. Threshold value is estimated at 9.83 % for Turkey and 6.69 % for Romania. In this regard, it is important to achieve sustainable growth which plays a crucial role in increasing the efficiency of implemented monetary policies and assuring stability. Therefore, political and economic decision-makers in these economies do not ignore the concept of threshold within the scope of monetary policy while determining the target inflation rate in their efforts to deal with inflation.

Keywords

Inflation Threshold, Financial Development, Economic Growth, Threshold Autoregressive Model

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i6/2939
Implementation of Corporate Social Responsibility Program for Education in Government Banking of Malang
Author(s): Dewi Sri Sejati, Budi Eko Soetjipto, Wening Patmi Rahayu      Pages: [39-51]
Abstract

This study was done in two State-owned enterprise banking which are Bank Rakyat Indonesia and Bank Negara Indonesia. The aim of this study is to know the underlying reason of the companies do the activity of CSR for education and their startegies in implementing the CSR program for education. This study used qualitative research method with descriptive approach with multy sites study type. The result of this study showed that both companieshave less striking similarities and differences, since both banks are state-owned banks which have been recognized by the people in terms of Corporate Social Responsibility for education. The underlying reason for the company to do CSR activities is because of government regulations about the obligation of SOEs (BUMN) to implement CSR. The strategies of the two companies do not have a significant difference. Since the researcher conducted the research in the branch office that hascentral office, then all activities undertaken must get approval from the regional and central office by sending a letter of recommendation. As seen in the objectives of the Corporate Social Responsibility program undertaken by the company, there are things that cannot be separated with corporate objectives. The development of CSR for education is very useful for companies and corporate partners for the implementation of social activities and the achievement of corporate goals. As performed by BRI and BNI in carrying out CSR activities, BRI has included it in the Vision of the company, while BNI has included it on the Mission of the company so that the implementation of CSR is in line with corporate goals.

Keywords

Corporate Social Responsibility, Education, Banking

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i6/2940
Abstract

This paper investigates the process of implementing sustainability standard into shea butter supply chain networks. Using an exploratory processual case study methodology informed by Pettigrew Contextual Approach. In this paper a conceptual model was developed using the relationship among the external actors to investigate the contextual factors that support or obstruct the implementation process over a period of time. The findings suggest that the standard setting organizations are the pace-setters for the other external actors in the implementation process, while contextual factors related to socio-cultural context, historical context and political context are responsible for the slow implementation process in the supply chain networks. Research implication for the study was presented together with contributions and conclusion.

Keywords

External actors, supply chain, sustainability standards, contextual factors, shea butter industry, Nigeria.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i6/2941
Local Leaders’ Perception on the Adaptive Capacity towards Climate Change Impacts among Small Scale Fishermen
Author(s): Norsida Man, Nurul Farhana Saharrudin, Asnarulkhadi Abu Samah, Hayrol Azril Mohamed Shaffril      Pages: [63-72]
Abstract

This study aims to explore the local leaders’ perceptions on the adaptive capacity towards climate change impacts among small scale fishermen. This study is quantitative in nature which used a questionnaire that was developed based on the International Union Conservation of Nature community adaptive capacity framework. Multi-stage cluster sampling was employed resulting in the selection of 300 small scale fishermen from Pengkalan Chepa and Batu Pahat as respondents. Results have shown that local leaders perceived that the small scale fishermen had possessed strong adaptation in three aspects, namely, in terms of the capacity to experiment and learn, community assets and flexibility. A number of discussions have been highlighted in this paper which would hopefully further add understanding on the views of local leaders on adaptive capacity towards climate change impacts among small scale fishermen in Malaysia.

Keywords

Leaders’ Perception, Community Development, Adaptation Capacity

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i6/2944
Long Run Relationship between Income Inequality and Economic Growth: Evidence from Malaysia
Author(s): Nor Fatimah Che Sulaiman, Ishak Yussof, Mohd Azlan Shah Zaidi, Noorasiah Sulaiman      Pages: [73-88]
Abstract

The aim of present study is to investigate the existence of a long run relationship between income inequality and economic growth in Malaysia. The study has employed annual time series data over the period of 1970 up to 2014. This study is conducted by utilizing the Autoregressive Distributive Lag (ARDL) techniques. ARDL bounds testing approach has been used for cointegration and error correction method (ECM). The unit root problem is handled by the use of ADF unit root test. The findings of our analysis are contrasted to the significant association between income inequality and economic growth found by Alesina and Roderick (1994) and by Persson and Tabellini (1994). To the best of our knowledge, this study seems to be a good and unique contribution in literature with reference to Malaysia. This study is one of pioneering attempt that employs ARDL cointegration approach for this income inequality issue in Malaysia.

Keywords

Income Inequality, Gini Index, ARDL, Economic Growth

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i6/2945
Relationship between Selected Home Environmental Factors and the Pupils with Hearing Impairment's Academic Performance
Author(s): Lucy Wanjira Mwangi, Gladys Ngao, Maithya .      Pages: [89-95]
Abstract

The study examined the relationship between home environment and academic performance of upper primary pupils with Hearing Impairments in Central Province Kenya. The study was based on Atkinson motivation theory, from literature reviewed. It was realized that a strong positive correlation between academic achievement and home environment existed (Kapila, 1976). A sample size of 75 upper primary (5,6,7,8) between the ages of 14-18 years were randomly selected from five primary schools for the Hearing Impaired in Central Province. Data was collected using two questionnaires and results of the end year examination were used as a measure of their academic performance. Pearson’s product moment correlation and two taile t-test were used to test the hypothesis. One of the major findings indicated that there was a significant relationship between home environment and academic performance of children with Hearing Impairment. The study recommended that the parents ensure that children have a favorable home environment in order to achieve success in school.

Keywords

Academic Performance

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i6/2948
Troubling Job Demands at Work: Examining the Deleterious Impact of Workload and Emotional Demands on Work Engagement
Author(s): Umair Ahmed, Muzafar Hussain Shah, Benazir Ahmed Siddiqui, Saeed Abbas Shah, Abdul Samad Dahri, Muhammad Asif Qureshi      Pages: [96-106]
Abstract

The present study attempted to study the impact of job demands including workload and emotional demands on employees` work engagement. The study sampled bank employees from the large six banks in Pakistan. A total of 537 questionnaires were distributed out of which, 385 were received back and 277 were only were further found to be appropriate for final analysis. Structural equation modeling through using Smart PLS 2.0 was deployed which found workload marked a significant negative impact on employees` work engagement. Accordingly, the study also concluded significant negative impact of emotional demands upon employees` work engagement. The study has confirmed the deleterious effects of job demands like workload and emotional demands on employees work wellbeing, resulting in negatively affecting their engagement.

Keywords

Work engagement, Job Demands, Workload, Emotional Demands, Smart PLS.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i6/2949
A Minimalist Approach to Argument Structure of Dholuo Concatenated Verbal Extensions
Author(s): Erick Omondi Odero, Walter Ochieng Sande      Pages: [107-129]
Abstract

Verbs in Agglutinating languages, Dholuo included, have ability of accommodating derivative morphemes which get affixed to their roots. This affixation alters argument structure of the host verb thus changing the syntax and the semantics of the verb. These derivative morphemes because of their characteristics of extending verbs both syntactically and semantically are referred to as verbal extensions. The verbal extensions under investigation are the applicative, the locative, the reflexive, the reciprocal and the stative in their co-occurrent states. The incorporation of the co-occurrent Dholuo verbal extensions in a template of a verb, according to the principles of MP, causes the creation of derivational heads where syntactic and semantic features in the extended verb are checked. The semantic heads are created in configurations to provide sites where arguments introduced by Dholuo verbal extensions to the host verb are assigned their semantic roles through the merger of the head with the arguments. Data examined in this study was generated by the researchers who are themselves native speakers of Dholuo. In some instances however, consultations were made with other native speakers for cross-checking purposes. This study was motivated by the fact that the writers are Dholuo speaking linguists with in-depth interests in understanding the structure of Dholuo expressions from the linguists’ perspective.

Keywords

In Situ, Valence, Concatenation, Valence, Merger, Checking, Argument And Local Domain.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i6/2950
Establishment of Traceability practices through Halal Assurance System (HAS) Implementation
Author(s): Azmawani Abd Rahman, Mohani Abdul      Pages: [130-139]
Abstract

For several years, Department of Islamic Development Malaysia (JAKIM) has started to introduce the Halal Assurance System (HAS) to enable companies to fulfil the needs of end-customer. Besides, it allows companies to be more competent in ensuring halal assurance along the supply chain. The introduction of HAS as one of control system in order to sustain Halal integrity of a product is a remarkable effort. Even though HAS is currently compulsory for multinational company, but it is imperative for every player in halal industry to understand the importance of implementing the system properly. This is to ensure that the expected results can be maximized especially in providing traceability. There is a possibility of using multiple approaches of management or system due to the different guidelines, standards and practices that enables traceability in production. Thus, this paper discusses the similarity components of HAS, ISO22005:2007, and HACCP (Hazard Critical Control Point). This paper suggests that through the effective HAS implementation, firms can add value by having the traceability system in place.

Keywords

Halal Assurance System, Halal food supply chain, Traceability

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i6/2951
Abstract

The usage rate of social networking sites have increased in recent years in parallel with the technological improvements and developments experienced in the world. Social networking sites, usage rate of which is increasing in Turkey year by year, play an important role in removing the borders in the world and they are used extensively in the marketing mix. This helps companies to offer their products or services to a large number of people using social networking sites and to reach their marketing goals through their communication environment. Consumers can easily access many information about company, brand or product by using social networking sites and they can influence their purchasing decisions by sharing their ideas and opinions through these sites. For this reason, consumers' positive or negative comments on social networking sites and the power to influence other consumers with these comments are becoming an important phenomenon in terms of strengthening the power already in the hands of the consumers in marketing understanding. From this point, it has been aimed in the study to determine to what extent the positive or negative comments in the social networking sites are effective in determining the need of the consumer purchasing decision process, which are selection of alternatives, evaluation of alternatives, purchase decision and post-purchase evaluation stages. Demographic variables, based on the collected data from 300 participants, were used to investigate the extent to which the consumer purchasing decision process was influenced by comments of social networking sites at different stages. Within the research findings, the comparisons among the participants revealed that different comments of the social networking sites at different stages of the purchasing decision process of different consumer groups were influenced at a level of different demographic variables.

Keywords

Social Networking Websites, Consumer Purchasing Decision Process, Purchasing behaviors

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i6/2952
The Impact of Foreign Direct Investment and Trade Liberalization on Economic Growth, Income Distribution and Environmental Quality: The Comparative Analysis between France and South Korea
Author(s): Abdul Rahim Ridzuan, Nor Asmat Ismail, Abdul Fatah Che Hamat, Mohamad Idham Md Razak, Faridah Pardi      Pages: [163-182]
Abstract

The main objective of this paper is to analyze the impacts of foreign direct investment (FDI) and trade openness (TO) on three main pillars of sustainable development (SD) consists of growth, income distribution, and environmental quality, for two selected countries which are South Korea and France. The observation of this study is based on annual data covering the period from 1980 to 2014. All the three proposed model are analyzed by using Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) estimation technique.The long run elasticities of ARDL model indicated that FDI inflows have led to higher growth and lower pollution level for South Korea, but have widened the income inequality in this country. The TO, on the other hand, has improved the income distribution but failed to have any significant effect on growth and environmental quality. As for France, FDI inflows were found to reduce income equality but have no significant impact on growth and environmental quality. As for TO, it was found to have a positive influence on growth. South Korea could offer more attractive incentives to foreign investors to invest more in both agricultural and manufacturing sectors besides improving the trade policies in order to sustain economic growth. France on the other hand, should be more selective especially allowing foreign industries that use cleaner energy in their production. Besides, France could adopt stricter environmental strategies in their trade agreements with other countries in order to ensure better protection for the environment.

Keywords

Sustainable development, Foreign direct investment, Trade openness, Income inequality, Environmental Quality

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i6/2953
Development of Al-Quran Android Application from Year 2013 To 2016: The Highlight
Author(s): Nuril Ham Al Hafizah Binti Zahari, Sharifah Norshah Bani Binti Syed Bidin, Syadiah Nor Binti Wan Syamsuddin      Pages: [183-195]
Abstract

The global market has experienced a huge increase in the number of mobile apps since the number of smartphone users shows a good rapid. Along with that, it gives an opportunity for the development of Islamic apps which is able to compete with the other apps. Nowadays, Al-Quran can be access through digital and it is not limited to books only, this shows that it is equally competitive with other scientific fields. This article is to highlight the development of android application of Al-Quran in Malay, Arabic and English from 2013 to 2016. The aim is to identify the types of android applications of Al-Quran in the market and that can be a quick reference medium for Muslim today. The study focused on the aspects of content and design for every type of Al-Quran application. As a result, there are about more than 500 Al-Quran apps that are using android platform in the market. However, the existing Al-Quran application does not cover all the current needs of Muslims because most of the applications only focuses on the Al-Quran and its translation into multiple languages, audio readings of Al-Quran, the identification section Makiyah or Madaniyah, recitation, reduction of Al-Quran sentences (asbab annuzul) and the index of the Al-Quran. This study is expected to give an idea to the application designer to fill the gap in existing applications in the future.

Keywords

Smartphone, content, design, al-quran application, android

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i6/2954
Entrepreneurship Spirit of the Child Raised by the Single Parent
Author(s): Gleydis Harwida, Fulgentius Danardana Murwani, Ludi Wishnu Wardana      Pages: [196-209]
Abstract

The objectives of this research is to know the entrepreneurship spirit of a child raised by the single parent and to know the factors that influence the source which creates the spirit of entrepreneurship. This research employs the qualitative method and the approach used is the case study. The technique in collecting the data is semi structural interview in which the main informant of this research is a child raised by a single parent. Meanwhile, the supporting informant of the current research is the parent. The result shows that the spirit of entrepreneurship owned by a child raised by a single parent is very high. This is proved by the existence of several characteristics of an entrepreneur in this child. Those characteristics are responsibility, independence, discipline, orientation to the business opportunities, good risk-taking, communication ability, future orientation, and leadership skill. This internal factor is the profit orientation that reflects an independence from relying onto the parent and orientation also challenges the business capability of the child. On the other hand, it is found there is an external factor which has influence to create the spirit of entrepreneurship too. That is the education given by the parents and the school.

Keywords

Entrepreneurship spirit, Single parent

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i6/2955
The Impact of Auditing on Stock Prices of Amman Stock Market’s Listed Companies
Author(s): Kayed Abdullah Al-Attar      Pages: [210-220]
Abstract

The purpose of current study is to explore the impact of auditing on stock prices of Amman stock market. Study is conducted based on primary data collected from finance managers of listed companies of Amman stock market, about audit and its impact of stock prices. Impact of audit is indicated in terms of audit quality and its effect on financial performance of firm because stock prices are an indicator of financial performance of firms. To find out the relationship among key variables of study, audit quality and stock prices, hypotheses are proposed as well as tested using SPSS and AMOS. Descriptive analysis, factor analysis and structural equation modeling is implemented to find out the results. It is found that audit has a direct impact on stock prices of firms in Amman stock market, while improved audit quality results in improved financial performance of the firm indicated in their stock prices.

Keywords

Audit, Audit Quality, Financial Performance, Finance Managers, Stock Prices, Amman Stock Market.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i6/2958
Abstract

In several years, structural equation modeling or popularly known as SEM is the first generation path modeling widely used by researchers and practitioners nowadays to analyze the interrelationship among variables in a model. In this study, the questionnaire was designed based on six constructs which is headmaster’s instructional leadership as exogenous and parental involvement in preschool education, preschool teachers’ information and communication technology (ICT) in teaching, teacher professional development, and preschool development plans and effective teaching among preschool teachers are endogenous variable. The questionnaires were distributed to 280 preschool teachers in Sarawak. The total of 267 questionnaires were returned to researcher for the validity and reliability test in this study. The ultimate objective of this article is to acquire the best fit of a research instrument for the effective teaching study using structural equation model (SEM) that enable to taking into account the unreliable factors (items) between exogenous and endogenous constructs. The items of the constructs undergo the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) procedure involve in unidimensionality test, convergent validity, construct validity and discriminant validity. The result revealed the constructs of the research model achieved the validity and reliability for other further analysis in acquiring high accuracy on the prediction outcomes.

Keywords

AMOS, CFA, Reliability, Validitity, Composite Reliavility (AR), Average Variance Extracted (AVE)

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i6/2959
Abstract

The purpose of this research study is to investigate the impact of HEC promotion policies on the motivation and performance level of faculty members of Jamshoro Education City (JEC). To measure the policy impact on motivation of both tenure (1st and 2nd) policies of HEC are studied. The research questionnaire was designed to determine the factors of motivation (intrinsic & extrinsic) that have impact of HEC policies on performance of faculty member. Data is collected through the mix methodology and analyzed in SPSS. 190 respondents that were only faculty members were randomly selected from the JEC universities. The study concluded that the performance factors qualifications and publications of all faculty members have been increased in the time frame of first and 2nd tenure of HEC policies in which some developmental schemes and rewards were announced. From this research study it was also found that there is a positive relationship between the intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors in faculty members of Jamshoro Education City. However, the negative relationship is found between HEC policies and one of the extrinsic factors i.e. promotion which could be tough criteria and eligibility has been set by HEC. Overall no significant impact of intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors has been found on the qualification and publication done by FMJEC.

Keywords

Motivation, Extrinsic, Intrinsic, Empowerment, Perceived Competency, Recognition & Appreciation, Salary, Benefits, Promotion, Faculty members

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i6/2960
Abstract

In defending the authenticity of Mu?ammad’s prophethood, miracles (mu?jiz?t) were regarded as one of the main instruments to measure and verify the veracity of his prophethood. The Qur??n has been employed as auxiliary apparatus to render this idea in early Islamic discourse. This article aims to explore the concept of miracle in early Islamic literature, and analyse Qur??nic verses that have been utilised in S?rah Nabawiyyah as supporting evidence in the narratives. The study is qualitative in nature in which the researcher will focus on textual and comparative analysis. In its finding, the present study suggests that the use of Qur??nic references in this context appears as related to the personal style and approach of each author of Islamic works.

Keywords

Miracle, Sirah Nabawiyyah, Quranic references, Islamic literature

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i6/2961
Abstract

The background of this study was sparked by the demonstration of Civil Servant teachers who rejected the Mayor’s Instruction No. 1 year 2013 aiming to optimize the fundraising of income Zakat (Profession Zakat), infaq and Sadaqah among Civil Servants and Employees of governmental enterprises in the Pekanbaru city. The mayor’s instruction did not necessarily get a positive response from all parties, even the teachers objected their salary received every month gets a cut of 2.5% from the Department of Education. They considered that the payment of zakat is the awareness of individuals not on coercion. This descriptive study aimed to determine how the Civil Servant teachers’ perception of Pekanbaru City on the Mayor’s Instruction No. 1 Year 2013 regarding Income Zakat (Profession Zakat) was. The data used in this study were primary data and secondary data. The primary data were collected through questionnaires distributed to civil servant teachers of Pekanbaru, while secondary data were obtained from books, literature, internet, and other media. The analytical method used was a descriptive statistical method, it provides the data presentation with charts, graphs, pie charts and percentages then described. The Population in this study were 2,726 moslem civil servant teachers and the sample taken were 96 of them. From the calculation of 96 respondents surveyed, 16.37% stated strongly agree, 21.33% stated agree, 17.36% stated neutral, 42.1% stated disagree, and 2.53% stated strongly disagree. In conclusion, the results showed that most civil servant teachers were "disagree" with the Mayor’s Instruction No. 1 Year 2013 regarding Income Zakat (Profession Zakat).

Keywords

Perception, teachers, Profession Zakat, Descriptive, Statistics

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i6/2962
Effect of Audit Committee Diversity on Quality of Financial Reporting in Non-Commercial State Corporations in Kenya
Author(s): Anthony Kirubi Mwangi, J. Oluoch Oluoch, Willy Muturi, Memba Florence      Pages: [288-302]
Abstract

The purpose of this study was to establish the effect of audit committee diversity on quality of financial reporting in non-commercial state corporations in Kenya. All the non-commercial state corporations that existed in 2005 were studied. The study was founded on stewardship theory, policeman theory, lending credibility theory and stakeholder theory. The study adopted descriptive research design and the target population of the study was the seventy two non-commercial state corporations that existed subsequent to the introduction of Treasury guidelines in 2005 on formation and operationalization of audit committees in the public sector. The study used a census survey on all 72 state corporations. The study employed stratified purposive sampling to select the respondents from the target population. The study used primary and secondary data. Primary data was obtained from administration of the questionnaires and the secondary data obtained from the Kenya National Audit Office annual reports, Audited Financial statements of state corporations and Finance Bills of the respective financial years. Descriptive statistics used were frequencies, mean and standard deviation, while inferential statistics used are correlation and regression analysis. Regression analysis was employed to measure relationships between dependent and independent variables. The findings from both correlation and regression analysis revealed that audit committee diversity had statistically significant relationship with the quality of financial reporting. This study recommended that when constituting audit committees in state corporations, consideration should be put on diversity. Diversity of audit committees should be evaluated based on gender, age, geographical orientation and tenure. Audit committees should consist of diversified members. This because demographic diversity of audit committee enhances the quality of firm‘s financial reporting.

Keywords

Quality of Financial Reporting, Audit Committee diversity

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i6/2963
Empirical Examination for Operational and Credit Risk Perspective – A Case of Commercial Banks of Pakistan
Author(s): Mian Saqib Mehmood, Iram Sheraz, Asif Mehmood, Bahaudin G. Mujtaba      Pages: [303-314]
Abstract

The objective of this study is to evaluate the factors that influence credit and operational risk in commercial banks. Financial data was collected from 11 commercial banks of Pakistan listed in Karachi Stock Exchange (KSE) over the period of 2009-2014. Different statistical tools and techniques are applied to find the cause and effect relationship for the underconsideration issue.The banking sector have faced the rivalry with other financial institutions to grab the attention of the customers and having a considerable competition with other banks. The result has shown that operational risk had significant but negative relation with NPL and operating efficiency but positive and highly significant relationship with bank size. Credit risk had significant and positive regression values with gearing ratio. NPL, operating efficiency and bank size had negative and insignificant relation with credit risk. There was no relationship between gearing ratio and operational risk. However the bottomline of this research suggests that banks play an important role in providing the finance for many of the businesses. Moreover these institutions need more managerial grip and vigilant attitude towards the risk management.

Keywords

Operational Risk, Credit Risk, KSE, Commercial Banks, Pakistan

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i6/2964
Studies pertaining to Illegal Street Racers’ Behaviour: Literature Review
Author(s): Mohd Roslan Mohd Tahir, Haziah Saari, Rusnah Johare      Pages: [315-325]
Abstract

Street racing has long been identified as a threat to civil society with significant social and economic impact. In Malaysia, the high fatal accidents rate involving motorcyclists performing illegal street racing has dominated the news in the local newspapers and social media and have caused legislators, regulators and the public to question factors that contribute to these issues. This paper is an attempt to gain greater insight into the factors influencing the risky behaviours associated to violating traffic regulations among the illegal motorcycle racers termed “Mat Rempit” in Malaysia identified in the literature. The findings of this review not only could be used as reference for future research but also as reference by the various authorities to understand the issues more closely.

Keywords

Illegal Street Racing, “Mat Rempit”, Violating Traffic Regulations, Risky Behaviour.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i6/2965
The Impact of Mediating Role of Job Security between Work-Family Conflict and Employee Welfare Service
Author(s): Arifa Arif, Muhammad Zia-ud-din, Iqra Iqbal, Syed Danish Raza Naqvi      Pages: [326-341]
Abstract

The purpose of this study is to check the impact of work-family conflict and how it can be control. Data is analyses through Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21.The respondents of this research are employees in banking sectors located in Faisalabad. The sample size is two hundred out of which 180 is considered. The hypothesis generated for the study was tested at 0.05.Data is analyzed through descriptive and inferential tests on the responses gathered. The results of this study showed that there is a insignificant relationship between work-family conflict and Employee welfare service. Work-family conflict has negative relation with employee welfare service. The results also signifies that job security partially mediate the relationship between work-family conflict and employee welfare service. This research also presents conclusion, recommendations, and implications for future research.

Keywords

Work-family conflict, employee welfare service, job security.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i6/2966
Strategic Assessment based on 7S McKinsey Model for a Business by Using Analytic Network Process (ANP)
Author(s): Ismail Gokdeniz, Cihat Kartal, Kivanc Komurcu      Pages: [342-353]
Abstract

In this study, the strategic assessment of a business organization was conducted within the context of 7S McKinsey model. The proposed model in the study includes the factors of strategy, structure, style, systems and procedures, skills, shared values, and staffs. The interaction between the factors of the 7S model, which is grounded in the business assessment, was taken into consideration in the study. Therefore, the Analytic Network Process (ANP) technique, which enables to analyze the model’s this interactional and relational situation, was used. It has been understood that the assessment of a business organization in the frame of the 7S model could be done with the model which was proposed in the conclusion of the study. Along with this, the current performance level of each sub-factor in the 7S model could be answered in consequence of analysis. These results of the study give an idea about to what extent a business organization has access to their goals, in the context of the 7S model.

Keywords

7S Model, Strategic assessment, Analytic Network Process

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i6/2967
Use of Plastic Money in Zimbabwe, Threats and Opportunities for Rural Communities
Author(s): Misheck Diza, Watson Munyanyi, Linda Gumbo      Pages: [354-366]
Abstract

Since the Zimbabwean economy adopted the US dollar as a major currency in 2009, rural communities have remained marginalized in terms of access to financial products and services. The research study evaluates the use and adoption of plastic money by rural communities in Zimbabwe. A descriptive research design was adopted to assess the use of plastic money by rural financially active citizens in Masvingo Province. Data was collected from a sample of 300 respondents using a self-administered questionnaire and analyzed using selected econometric computer packages. The research study established that the majority of rural communities in Zimbabwe had no access to plastic money facilities and therefore transacted mainly using cash and mobile money. This was largely due to lack of plastic money facilities among rural service providers, lack of adequate knowledge on importance of plastic money, low income levels and lack of confidence in the overall financial system. It was concluded that very few financial institutions served the rural market, and those that, did relied on agent banking. In addition, the majority of retail operators are importers who only accept cash as a means of settlement. It was recommended that banks should market their products and services to rural markets through awareness campaigns on the benefits to be drawn from adoption and use of plastic money. The central bank through its monitoring and supervisory function should continue to assess the extent to which banks and other financial institutions are serving the needs of rural communities. Point of Sale (POS) transaction costs should be reduced further to allow low income earners to transact even in smaller amounts without feeling the pinch, otherwise the goals of the National Financial Inclusion Strategy will be unachievable by 2020.

Keywords

Plastic Money, Financial Inclusion, Rural Community, Cash, Mobile Money

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i6/2968
Examining the Structural Relationships of Service Quality, Destination Image, Tourist Satisfaction and Loyalty: An Integrated Approach
Author(s): Yohana Yosta Permatasari, Fulgentius Danardana Murwani, Suharto, S.M      Pages: [367-378]
Abstract

The objectives of this research are to investigate and develop the theoretical relationship among service quality, destination image, and satisfaction and empirically examine that probability influences the tourist’s loyalty. The target population was all visitors above 17 years and who visited during November until December. A Total of 384 questionnaires were collected, coded, and analyzed. Path analysis technique used to test the influence of each variable. The empirical result of the research showed that the service quality and destination image influence the satisfaction. Moreover, the finding revealed that the destination image and satisfaction had significant effect towards loyalty. The findings of this research has a significant contribution towards the knowledge that is in line with this domain, particularly on the visitors oriented to the tourism industry with family and this aspect is not taught.

Keywords

Service Quality, Destination Image, Satisfaction, Loyalty.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i6/2990
Political Instability and its Effects on International Companies: A Case Study on Sierra Rutile Limited (Sierra Leone)
Author(s): Ibrahim Jam Jalloh, Ery Tri Djatmika, I Wayan Jaman Adi Putra      Pages: [379-391]
Abstract

This research explains political instability and it effects on International companies, a case study on Sierra Rutile Limited (SL). The purpose of this paper is to explain the working conditions and operations of Sierra Rutile Ltd before the outbreak of the Instability in Sierra Leone, in 1991, the effect of political instability on Sierra Rutile Limited during the instability from 1991-2002, the present condition of the company since the end of the Instability in 2002, Mechanism and solutions in preventing business decline and failure in the future caused by political instability if it probably emerged. In this research a qualitative descriptive approach, phenomenology was recommended which focuses on political instability and it effects on international companies, a case study on Sierra Rutile Ltd, by the use of documentations and observations. The findings can also been drawn from the background of the Instability in the country, focusing on the operation of Sierra Rutile before, during and after the instability in Sierra Leone. This article will provide significant conclusions and recommendations to governments, feature researchers, Industries, companies, International business and global markets.

Keywords

Political Instability, Civil War, Mining.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i6/2991
Abstract

Islam governs human life so that they are happy and safe in the world until akhirat (hereafter), Allah SWT has ruled the believers to enter in the rules of Islam as a whole (kaffah), both life individually and socially, both related to Ibadah (worship) and muamalah (Social, Islamic commercial jurisprudence or Islamic economic). Many scholars propose that entrepreneurship is a part of Islamic life. As entrepreneurship is booming almost everywhere in the world, in Muslim world is still underdeveloped. Purpose of this study is to explored how the proses of entrepreneurship education in Islamic Boarding School. This study used qualitative case study approach. Results from these interviews were reflected on framework created for the purpose of this study. This framework shows how dimensions of religion, culture, tradition and institutional approach (driven out of culture, tradition and religion) affect entrepreneurial activity. On the basis of the results of this research, show that the proses implementation of entrepreneurship education in boarding school Sidogiri integrating with religious subjects especially, in fiqh al-mu'?mal?t, and extracurricular form senior students and alumni of Pesantren through strategy Students are trained to manage the existing economic institutions in boarding schools under the supervision and guidance of kyai (Head of Islamic Boarding school), teacher, administrators, senior student and Alumni of Pondok Pesantren Through spiritual values plus entrepreneurship that is internalized in boarding school Sidogiri is religious and entrepreneurial values based on Ibadah (worship to God) and Khidmah (services for mankind), where all business and economic activities undertaken intended to worship Allah SWT; Reverence to the community. it can be concluded that religious teachings of Islam encourage economic and entrepreneurial activity, while cultural and traditional aspects discourage this kind of behavior. Institutional approach varies through different countries.

Keywords

Entrepreneurial learning; collaborative learning; Islamic Boarding School. Spiritual Entrepreneurship Education.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i6/2992
Determinants of the Inefficiency of Public Hospitals in Cameroon
Author(s): Molem Christopher S., Beri Parfait B., Ntangsi . Max M      Pages: [404-419]
Abstract

The purpose of this paper was to assess the determinants of the inefficiency of public hospitals in Cameroon. The methods employed in the study involved a two-stage analysis technique whereby Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) was applied using the traditional inputs and outputs with data from the National Institute of Statistics (NIS) of Cameroon. The efficiency scores from the first stage were then transformed into inefficiency scores and regressed on the environmental variables using the censored regression model (Tobit Model). We found that corruption and location of health facility were signficant determinants of inefficiency; hospitals became more efficient when exposed to competition and when bed occupancy increased. The number of supervisions and size of health facility did not have a signficant effect on inefficiency while age of health facility, distance covered by patients to hospitals, distance separating public hospital from closest private hospital were negative but insignficant determinants of inefficiency. It was then concluded that Identifying the determinants of inefficiency helps hospitals to restructure how they manage their operations since improved performance helps better resource utilisation, control cost and increase accesss to healthcare.

Keywords

Inefficiency, Public Hospitals, DEA, Censored Regression.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i6/2998
Motivation, Attitude and Belief Competency toward Teaching Programming
Author(s): Nor Masharah Husain, Muhammad Modi Lakulu, Sulaiman Sarkawi      Pages: [420-428]
Abstract

The purpose of this study is to develop a two competency component which is motivation and attitude and belief competency for teacher toward teaching programming. This study will describe two competency designed and through a process of validity using Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM). There are six elements in the motivation competency and ten elements in the attitudes and beliefs competency. Each element in this two competency acquired high value of consensus based on fuzzy Delphi approach. This study is part of the competency model of programming teacher that is being developed.

Keywords

Motivation, Attitude, Belief, Programming Teacher, Competency, Fuzzy Delphi

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i6/2999
Strategies for Accessing Credit by Small and Medium Enterprises
Author(s): Henry Jefferson Ogoi      Pages: [429-448]
Abstract

Small and medium enterprise business owners play an important role in the Kenyan economy as they account for approximately 78 percent of total employment and 57 percent of the new jobs created. Despite their significant contribution, SME business owners face enormous challenges as such as access to credit, which affects their businesses. This study adopted a qualitative research paradigm with a multiple case study design to explore the strategies Kenyan SME business owners used to access credit to improve the profitability and growth of their businesses. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect primary data from a sample of four SME owners of businesses located in Kakamega Town, Kenya, who have had access to credit. Company documents were used as supplementary data. All interpretations from the data were subjected to member checking to ensure the reliability of the findings. The research findings revealed that SME business owners face challenges in accessing credit to sustain their businesses because of the higher collateral requirements demanded by banks as a condition for lending. The study recommended that SME owners use their education and professional background, information access and group lending strategies to access credit to improve the profitability and growth of their businesses.

Keywords

Access to Credit, Collateral, Group Lending, Information Access

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i6/3000
Influence of Accountability and Transparency on Governance in Islam
Author(s): GIDADO, Abdu Dauda, Abubakar Sabo Yusha’u      Pages: [449-456]
Abstract

The world has reached a consensus that good governance is significant for human resource development in any society. It was on this background that this paper looks at the influence of accountability and transparency from Islamic perspective in achieving good governance in the society. This paper identifies the difference between conventional view of accountability and accountability in Islam. It revealed that Islam operates dual accountability. This owes to the fact that one is accountable to Allah as His khalifah on the earth and also he is also accountable to his fellow beings. This paper also pointed out that Islam lays emphasis on transparency in all transactions by citing relevant Ayah of the Holy Qur’an and the sayings of the Prophet (S.A.W). The paper stated that good governance is achievable through the application of Islamic view of accountability and transperency. Finally, it recommended that emphasis should always be placed on the personality of a leader, who should be someone who has Allah’s consciousness in his actions and deeds, orientation should be organized for those in authority on the concept of Amanah in Islam and finally government should always run an open door policy.

Keywords

Accountability and Transparency

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i6/3002
Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate which determinants of the theory of planned behaviour (attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control), perceived attributes and event satisfaction are the best predictors of behavioural intentions in attending future Muay Thai events in Thailand. Data were collected from 209 subjects comprising of foreign sport tourists who attended Muay Thai events at Sanam Muay Rajadamnern stadium and Sanam Muay Lumpini stadiums in Thailand. The questionnaire consisted of instruments modified from Ferreira and Armstrong (2004), Shonk (2006) and Cunningham and Kwon (2003). The finding indicated that subjective norm (R2change = .251) or 25.1% of the total variance was the best predictor of tourists’ behavioral intentions in attending future Muay Thai events, followed by game attractiveness (R2change = .045), perceived behavioral Control (R2change = .037), cost (R2change = .025), and event satisfaction (R2change = .019). The results of the study were discussed in light of earlier findings concerning of intending sports events.

Keywords

Sport Tourists, Sport Events, Event Satisfaction, Behavioural Intentions

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i6/3003
Measuring the Small Scale Fishermen’s Adaptation Ability based on their Practices: The Case of Peninsular Malaysia
Author(s): Mas Ernawati Hamdan, Asnarulkhadi Abu Samah, Khairuddin Idris, Bahaman Abu Samah      Pages: [466-472]
Abstract

As climate change is worsening, it is apparent that people would manage several adaptation strategies to confront it in the most effective ways. Adaptation practices is crucial, especially among small scale fishermen whose reliance on the weather state is high. This study aims to measure small scale fishermen’s adaptation ability from the angle of their practices. This study is quantitative in nature whereby via a multistage cluster sampling, a total of 200 small scale fishermen were selected as respondent. Findings from this study show Malaysian fishermen’s heavy reliance on fisheries activities, their reluctance to venture into new work fields and low confidence in getting a new job as their main weakness when it comes to their adaptation practices, whereas their ability to diversify their catches and catching tools and their courage to explore new catching areas were seen to be their strength. It is hoped that the discussions from this study be considered in any development plan strategized by concerned parties.

Keywords

Community Development, Adaptation Ability, Fisheries Industry Development, Environment Management

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i6/3004
Abstract

The purpose of this study is to describe the implementation of cooperative learning model Quiz-quiz Trade and Inside-Outside Circle in improving students’ social skills and learning outcomes. The subject of the study is fourth grade SDN Pandanwangi 2 Malang that consisting of 32 students. The type of this study is Classroom Action Research, which consists of two cycles. Each cycle consists of planning, implementing, observation, and reflection. The data collection uses observation method, interview, filling questionnaire, and cognitive test. Technical data analysis in this study consists of: 1) data reduction, 2) data presentation, 3) inferences of analysis results. The results showed that: 1) the implementation of cooperative learning model Quiz-quiz Trade and Inside-Outside Circle in fourth grade students in SDN Pandanwangi 2 Malang is well performed; 2) the implementation of cooperative learning model Quiz-quiz Trade and Inside-Outside Circle can improve students' social skills; and 3) the implementation of cooperative learning model Quiz-quiz Trade and Inside-Outside Circle can improve student’s learning outcomes.

Keywords

Quiz-Quiz Trade, Inside-Outside Circle, social skills, learning outcomes

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i6/3005
Audit Committee Effectiveness of Financial Reporting Quality in Listed companies in Nigeria Stock Exchange
Author(s): Samuel Akpovwre Eyenubo, Mudzamir Mohammed, Mohammad Ali      Pages: [487-505]
Abstract

The paper examines the impact of audit committee on financial reporting quality in listed firms in Nigeria Stock Exchange. The paper uses the conceptual approach on archival data in the form of annual report of listed companies’ annual reports to examine the relationship between audit committee and financial reporting quality. It also examine the role of audit committee in the relationship with financial reporting quality best code of practices of corporate governance and the relationship between independence, size, diligence, and expertise of audit committee.

Keywords

Audit Committee Corporate Governance, Financial Reporting Quality, Audit Quality.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i6/3006
Repeated Sprint Ability Depending on the Level of Condition among University Soccer Players
Author(s): Omar Md. Salleh, Ali Md Nadzalan, Nur Ikhwan Mohamad, Azali Rahmat      Pages: [506-514]
Abstract

The purpose of this study is to investigate the repeated sprint ability (RSA) performance among university soccer players. Twenty-four university representatives were voluntarily recruited as participants of this study and were asked to perform the RSA test that was modified which includes change of direction component in it. Participants were required to perform the RSA test in two conditions, with and without ball. Sprint time, fatigue index (FI) and percentage of decrement score of sprinting (Sdec) were analysed and compared between both protocols. Results showed that the sprint time without ball was significantly faster compared to sprint time with ball. Besides that, the FI and Sdec were shown to be significantly higher in with ball condition compared to without ball condition. Due to the drop of performance seen in the with ball condition, it shown the need for coaches and athletes to enhance the ability to move fast with ball, as this will enhance their team ability to control the ball possession which may affect the outcome of a soccer match.

Keywords

Change Of Direction, Repeated Sprint Ability, Soccer Conditioning, Speed-Agility Development, Fatigue Index

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i6/3007
Abstract

Organizations and businesses cannot depend completely on their own to generate new ideas for innovation and development in present knowledge based societies. Consequently, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) announced 2015 as the Year of Innovation and excellence awards have been established aiming to boost cooperation between various sectors in the country. Therefore, the concept of the Triple Helix (university–industry–government) was found as a model of innovation. The aim of this research is to establish the impact of a Triple Helix approach on enhancing creativity and skills within UAE public and private sectors. It explores the concept of the Triple Helix Model (THM) in the context of the UAE public and private sectors focusing on its existence, implementation, barriers and drivers. Methods of analysis include both qualitative and quantitative approach in which a conceptual framework was derived from the literature review, a survey was developed and distributed to a sample of employees from different organizations, and follow-up interviews were carried out with key stakeholders (in which their departments are implementing/ involved in the THM). The findings exposed the stakeholders’ perception about the importance of the concept and each actor’s role in the THM, the limited utilization of the concept among the organizations, and the challenges in terms of relational barriers and knowledge sharing. The research findings reveal that TH approach has a positive influence on enhancing creativity and skills within UAE sectors and several recommendations have been proposed such as leadership involvement and support, designing organizational innovation strategy, and the addition of society helix.

Keywords

Triple Helix Model, innovation, challenges, United Arab Emirates.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i6/3008
The Problems of Human Resource Management in Public Sector in Mimika Regency, Papua
Author(s): Yunias Kulla, Budi Eko Soetjipto Sopiah      Pages: [524-537]
Abstract

Civil servants are the souls of a country where the concept of good corporate governance is reflected in the performance of civil servants itself. Optimal performance can only be realized if there are no disruptions in the form of human resource issues such as competence, job placement, organizational culture and leadership and payroll mechanisms that generally occur in public sector organizations. A case study approach has been selected to accommodate in depth and holistic study. Research data has been collected from Mimika Regency Development Planning Agency, between January-March 2017. Realizing a good civil servant can be done with efforts to develop human resources both quality and in a behavior manner, and also address the emerging human resource issues

Keywords

Civil Servant Management, Civil Servant Issue, Civil Servant Development, Public Sector

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i6/3009
Islamic Aqeedah Compliance Index: A Study of Malay Genome in Malaysia
Author(s): E. A. Z. Engku Alwi, N. Anas, W. R. Wan Taib, M. H. Razali, S. A. Saany, Z. Yaacob      Pages: [538-553]
Abstract

In Islam, sharia and akhlaq are very fundamental in its teaching and so is aqeedah. It is another significant foundation and the three are inter-linked to each other. Aqeedah forms the basis of iman (firm belief), hence if one of the components is missing, one’s iman is lost or later becomes unbalanced. The basis of this study was to address the prevalent issues of Islamic aqeedah, its concepts and their relevancy in the study of Malay genome in Malaysia. Besides, needs consideration were also discussed in implementing aqeedah-compliance index when conducting genome studies and researches so that they will not contradict the Islamic ethics and faith. This is also to avoid the destruction of humanity and also capable of providing a system that will solve the problems of humanity. In Malaysia, the studies of Malay genome have been administered by the Centre for Pharmacogenomics (iPROMISE), Faculty of Pharmacy, UiTM Puncak Alam Campus, Selangor Malaysia and the Faculty of Applied Science, UiTM Shah Alam Campus, Selangor Malaysia. Overall, researches on Malay genome have successfully developed a database of Malay genetic structure to help developing new drugs and vaccines, diagnosing diseases as well as providing links for these diseases to drugs commonly used for treating. Apparently, much effort has been made to determine the role of genetic variation and its imbalance patterns towards diseases.

Keywords

Compliance index, Islamic Aqeedah, Malay genome, Malaysia

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i6/3010