International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences

Archives

Volume 7, issue 5 (May, 2017)

Abstract

Based on the synthesis of related literatures, this research found thirteen related dimensions that involved the development of natural disaster preparedness awareness including hazard knowledge, hazard attitude, training for disaster preparedness, rehearsal and practice for disaster preparedness, cultural development for preparedness, public relations and communication, storytelling, disaster awareness game, simulation, past experience to natural disaster, information sharing with family members, and commitment to the community (time of living). The 40-item of flood disaster preparedness awareness questionnaire was developed based on these thirteen dimensions. Data were collected from 595 participants in Bangkok metropolitan and vicinity by using snowball sampling technique. Cronbach’s alpha was used to examine the internal consistency for this instrument. Reliability coefficient was .97, which was highly acceptable. Exploratory Factor Analysis where principal axis factor analysis used was employed. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin index of sampling adequacy was .973, indicating that the data represented a homogeneous collection of variables suitable for factor analysis. Bartlett’s test of Sphericity was significant for the sample as Chi-Square = 23168.657, df = 780, and p-value < .0001, which indicated that the set of correlations in the correlation matrix was significantly different and acceptable for utilizing EFA. Factor extraction was done to determine the number of factors by using principal component analysis and varimax. The results revealed that four factors had Eigen value greater than 1 with more than 60% cumulative of variance. Factor #1 had Eigen value of 22.270, and factor loadings ranged from 0.626-0.760. This factor was named as “Knowledge and Attitude of Natural Disaster Preparedness”. Factor #2 had Eigen value of 2.491, and factor loadings ranged from 0.596-0.696. This factor was named as “Training and Development”. Factor #3 had Eigen value of 1.821, and factor loadings ranged from 0.643-0.777. This factor was named as “Building Experiences about Disaster Preparedness”. Factor #4 had Eigen value of 1.365, and factor loadings ranged from 0.657-0.760. This was named as “Family and Community”. The results of this study provided support for the reliability and construct validity of natural disaster preparedness awareness for utilizing with populations similar to sample employed.

Keywords

Flood Disaster, Flood Disaster Preparedness, Flood Disaster Awareness, Factor Analysis

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i5/2868
Government Expenditure and Economic Growth in Nigeria: An Analysis with Dynamic Ordinary Least Squares
Author(s): Gilbert Deinde Ifarajimi, Kehinde Oluwole Ola      Pages: [8-26]
Abstract

This study investigates the impact of government expenditure on economic growth from 1981 to 2015 using Dynamic Ordinary Least Squares that incorporates endogenity in its estimation. The unit root test using Augmented Dickey Fuller revealed that all the series were stationary at first difference. The two-step Engle-Granger residual test showed that the residual was stationary at level; thus, there was a long run relationship among the series. The findings obtained from the long run Dynamic OLS showed that government expenditure on administration, government expenditure on economic services and nominal exchange rate were significant and had the expected signs except government expenditure on economic services. The empirical findings further indicated that the ECM was negative and statistically significant at 5%. The speed of adjustment was 71.38%. Lastly, in the short-run analysis, findings revealed that the nominal exchange rate was significant and had the expected sign. This might have been due to the influence of naira depreciation on government expenditure. The study therefore recommends that there is need for restructuring of government expenditure to be in line with macroeconomic objectives and also to reduce expenditure on transfers through economic diversification. Government should also take decisive steps to diversify the economy in order to reduce dependence on oil and to stabilize the value of naira

Keywords

Dynamic OLS, economic growth, government expenditure, nominal exchange rate

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i5/2869
Abstract

This study aimed to examine the leadership patterns of the faculty members in the Public Authority for Applied Education and Training and its relationship with the culture of achievement. To achieve the objectives of the study, the researcher used the analytical descriptive method since it is appropriate for the subject of the study. The population consisted of the students of the Public Authority for Applied Education and Training in Kuwait and the sample consisted of 94 students who are expected to graduate and who are enrolled in the second academic semester for the year 2016-2017. The researcher designed a questionnaire as an instrument for the study and he ensured validity and reliability. In addition, the researcher used SPSS for the analysis of the responses of the sample as well as to calculate percentages, repetitions and relative weight, Kronbach Alpha and Pearson coefficient. The results showed an effect for the leadership patterns of the faculty members in the Public Authority for Applied Education and Training and its relationship with the culture of achievement.

Keywords

Leadership Patterns, Culture Of Achievement, Reinforcement, The Public Authority For Applied Education And Training, A Faculty Member.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i5/2870
Engage Spatial Thinking in Geography Teaching Material
Author(s): Armin Subhani, Sugeng Utaya, I Komang Astina      Pages: [33-42]
Abstract

The main competence of students in solving the problem of geography is that students are able to think of spatially. One important component supporting the achievement of the competence is the availability of teaching materials that engage spatial thinking. For this purpose, this study aims at including spatial thinking in geography teaching materials. This study used a procedure of systematic design of instruction by Dick and Carey (2001), each step is done in stages to produce a final product that is valid. In conclusion, in that procedure, spatial thinking can be included with either the geography teaching materials. However, this study is still limited to teaching materials of hydrology of geography teacher candidates in Indonesia, and focus on one component of spatial thinking, which is spatial concept. In the future, this research will be complemented by two other spatial thinking components, namely the representation of tools (media/ instructional technology), as well as the thinking process (input-process-output). The interesting issues are finding the most influential components to increase spatial thinking ability and determining its effectiveness if those three components are applied in a lesson.

Keywords

Spatial Thinking, Teaching Material, Geography.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i5/2871
Abstract

Provided that the prejudice is determined by a case of force majeure, the liability of debtor arising from the unfulfilled obligations is exempted. Force majeure has always an external nature and is defined as an unpredictable, unavoidable and unsurpassable event. The judicial practice indicates as force majeure events natural calamities or other catastrophes. Such events, however, cannot be considered as absolute events of force majeure and they should be analyzed in each individual case, evaluating if they meet or not the requirements of such event that can exonerate the debtor from the liability. The signatory parties of the contract can decide under a deed that certain events will be considered cases of force majeure. Proving an event of force majeure does not result into the exemption of liability if the debtor was put in delay as regards the fulfillment of the obligations undertaken by the contract and if the debtor has undertaken the liability as per a contractual convention or clause. In our opinion, the contracting parties should protect themselves by stipulating in their contract provisions regarding the details concerning the events of force majeure, but as well on the measures to be taken by the parties under such circumstances (immediate notifications, emergency measures implemented to mitigate the effects of the force majeure and losses, documents from the relevant authorities).

Keywords

Drought, Liability, Force Majeure, Debtor, Obligation, In Future Contract

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i5/2872
Abstract

The arbitration decision is enforceable and forcefully executed as a judgment. The arbitration decision is binding on the parties under the arbitration convention and the law, and it is treated as a final judgment having the force of res judicata. The content of the arbitration ruling is similar to the judicial decision. The fundamental principles of arbitration are the principle of equal treatment of litigants, the principle of the right to defense, the principle of the contradictory, the principle of flexibility of arbitration proceedings, the principle of confidentiality, the principle of availability, the principle of the right to a fair trial and the principle of the active role of the arbitrators. The arbitral ruling must be issued within the period set by the parties or by the law. In the absence of clauses accorded by the parties, a settlement period of five months is given, the period running from the date of constitution of the arbitral court. Also, under the term provided by law, the pronunciation of the arbitration ruling may be suspended or extended. The arbitration ruling/decision must be put in written form and must be signed by all arbitrators, unless it is drawn up a separate opinion.

Keywords

Arbitration, Decision, Agreement, Arbitral Court, Condition, Interpretation

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i5/2873
The Penalty Clause: Theoretical and Practical Matters
Author(s): Diana Gorun      Pages: [76-82]
Abstract

Art. 1538 of the new Civil Code stipulates: “the penalty clause is the one by means of which the parties stipulate that the debtor undertakes a particular service in the event of non-fulfillment of the principal obligation" (paragraph 1). According to paragraph 2 of the same article, in the event of non-execution, the creditor may request either the enforced execution in kind of the principal obligation or the penalty clause. Moreover, the creditor may request the enforcement of the penalty clause without having to prove the existence or the amount of the damage. The penalty clause finds its applicability in the performance of obligations, more precisely in the case of execution by equivalent.” The amount of the penalty clause is determined in advance, based on assessment. The advantage for the creditors consists in the fact that they no longer have to prove the existence and the amount of the damage if the debtor fails to perform their obligations according to the contractual provisions. The penalty clause is not meant, but must be expressly provided. The validity of the penalty clause depends on the validity of the agreement which stipulates it, since the nullity of the penalty clause does not entail the nullity of the principal clause.

Keywords

Contractual Obligation, Non-Fulfillment, Penalty Clause, Amount, Default

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i5/2874
Abstract

Nowadays when the technology effect on managements is ingreasingly continuing day by day, the factors composing business to business rivalry discrepancy, Show an alteration depending on this state. In this sense, the consideration way for 21.century is no doubt through organizing continuously the management’s structure and plans about the future. Thus, management gains the ability of responding continuously to all types of confusion and variation cycle which is taken place and may ocur. In this case, the study aims at collecting knowledge about the matters such as how the human resources planning is and how an ideal human resources planning have to be, and offering solutions in behalf of blocking this resultant complication in reality.In order to reach the objectives of the research, on individual semi-structured interview is fulfilled with the employees of human resources department in Bal?kesir ??bir Synthetic Woven Fabric A.? and in the light of given answers, solutions and suggestions are presented. According to acquired findings, although it has enough knowledge about the human resources planning, except for some corporate firms, it will not be wrong to say that there is a common view on planning function is not implemented.

Keywords

Human Resources, Human Resources Planning, Management, Human, Work

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i5/2875
Impact of School library on Students’ Academic Achievement at Secondary School Level in Southern Districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Author(s): Dr. M. Ayaz, Nasir Ali, Abdul Basit Khan, Rooh Ullah, Mati Ullah      Pages: [95-103]
Abstract

School library is the most essential to learning. School library play important role as a set for cheering improvement, interest, and difficulty solving. School library is a medium for literacy and reading and for instruction and scaffolding investigation learning. School libraries formulate a distinction to students understanding and attainment and give help for teaching and learning throughout the school. It is a central part of the school population and reflects and welcomes this community. School library is the place for knowledge and thoughts, and play fundamental part in supporting and developing pleasure of reading and multiple illiteracies. So without school library the educational program may not runs effectively.

Keywords

School Library, Academic Achievement And Secondary Level

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i5/2880
Abstract

In the literature, it is seen that has been used the data mining methods frequently for the analysis of the stock market and stocks. The aim in here is to provide making the most rational choice and increasing return by reducing human intervention to a minimum level with the creating the algorithmic process structure. In this study, stocks are classified basis of financial indicators derived from the financial statements of the companies. For this purpose, cluster analysis which is one of the data mining and multivariate statistical methods is used. In this method the aim is to collect most similar the stocks in the same cluster in terms of related variables. The variables used in the study; Price / earnings ratio, market value / book value ratio, dividend yield, return on assets, return on equity, change in sales and equity, return on average, return and risk. As the result of the analysis, 88 stocks in Borsa Istanbul 100 Index are divided into 12 clusters. Among these stocks, the ones that are most suitable to form a portfolio have been tried to be determined based on financial indicators and last one and three years’ stock performances.

Keywords

Portfolio Selection, Stocks, Cluster Analysis, Financial Ratios, Financial Markets

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i5/2881
Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) in Social Sciences & Medical Research: A Guide for Improved Analysis
Author(s): Farhat Shaheen, Naveed Ahmad, Muhammad Waqas, Abdul Waheed, Omer Farooq      Pages: [132-143]
Abstract

Researches conducted in social sciences require different statistical techniques in order to interpret the quantitative data gathered from sample. The selection of the techniques heavily depends upon nature of data and researcher’s own capability, preference, understanding and availability of statistical techniques. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) is one of the basic techniques also being widely used by researchers now days. The determination of this study is to give an overview of rudimentary concepts and issues related to SEM in social sciences. It is concluded after extensive literature search related to SEM that it is just like bond for the social science researcher in available statistical techniques like multivariate analysis including multiple regression in which checking effect by multiple variables in a model simultaneously. There is no plentiful work related to critiques on SEM in social sciences. This study fills gap by describing the basic concepts of SEM at one platform and more specifically it gives a holistic view to use SEM more effectively for social science researchers.

Keywords

Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), Statistical Techniques, multiple regression, Social Sciences

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i5/2882
Social Media and Performance of Micro Enterprises in Moshi Tanzania
Author(s): Isaac Kazungu, George Matto, Hellen Massawe      Pages: [144-157]
Abstract

Social media are gaining popularity and are increasingly used in regular operations of many organizations, including Micro Enterprises (MEs). Several studies have thus developed interests on investigating the impact of social media in MEs. Unfortunately most of the existing studies either did not consider performance factor of MEs or were not done in the context of developing counties like Tanzania. It is on this ground that this study explored how social media influence the MEs’ performance in the context of customer’s base, sales growth, profit maximization, and brand enhancement. Specifically the study focused on identifying the most used social media by MEs; influence of social media to the performance of MEs; and how MEs use social media in their business process. Data were collected in Moshi, Tanzania from a representative sample of 90 MEs. The study adopted case study research design where structured questionnaires and interview were used to collect data. Findings depict that all else being equal, the use of social media enhance business performance. WhatsApp was found to be the most, preferred social media by MEs, followed by Facebook, Instagram and Twitter. On the other hand, awareness, risks and insecurity of information, and costs was some of the observed challenges that hinder MEs from using social media. It was concluded that effective use of social media is an efficient tool for enhancing MEs performance. Among others, the study calls for further research on financial and marketing aspect of social media and relative involvement associated with the possible solution toward the challenges of social media

Keywords

Social Media, Firm’s Network, Performance, Micro Enterprises, Tanzania.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i5/2883
The Impact of E-Banking Processes in Minimizing Risk Ratios of Commercial Banks in Jordan
Author(s): Mohamed Al-Nuaimi, Ade Al-Nimri, Safa Salih      Pages: [158-169]
Abstract

The aim of this paper was to specify solutions and recommendations in order to provide an overview of the current developments in the e- banking sector of the commercial banks. The researches have investigated the effectiveness of e-banking processes relying in information gathered from 6 banks in Jordan, two Jordanian and four foreign banks. Five major processes of e-banking were chosen to identify their impact on risk ratio. Quantitative methods and qualitative information gathered from 9 interviews with bank managers of IT, IS and risk departments and the questionnaire was analyzed. Major results of the study are, there is lack of required documentation for the risk of E-banking and shortage of proper planning required to integrate the risk divisions of the banks with their IT and IS Divisions there is also a need to employ specialists on e-banking to gradually decrease banks reliance upon third parties.

Keywords

E – banking, Ecommerce application, internet banking system, risk averages ratio, network administration, website design and hosting.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i5/2884
Abstract

This study aimed to analyze the impact of internal and external factors associated with the consumer in the market share of travel and tourism companies in Al-Kharj province in KSA. Where it was found through analysis and standard estimates and statistical tests of hypotheses that external factors of consumer behavior (social, cultural, economic) closely influence market share, although most behavior connected and influential in market share is a social Factor. As well as it became clear that internal factors of consumer behavior (motivation, learning, perception, personal) is closely impact on market share and most influential is the cognitive factor and motivation, education, and personal Consequently.

Keywords

Behavior-Tourism-Travel Agencies –Customer.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i5/2885
The Effects of Promotional Activities on the Intention to Purchase: A Field Study in Kahramanmaras
Author(s): Elif KARA, T. Sukru YAPRAKLI      Pages: [186-204]
Abstract

If a business enterprise does not inform public about its products’ advantages or persuade the target group to buy, it will not be successful in marketing, even if it offers products according to consumers' needs and requests. The main aim of this study is to specify the effects of promotional activities on intention to purchase. It is also intended to determine whether there is difference in the intentions of people with different demographic features. For this reason, the suggested model has been tested on consumers at the age of 18 and above in the Turkish city of K. Mara?. Analysis has determined that positive attitudes towards promotional activities have positive effects on the intention to purchase. However, there are differences in terms of intention to purchase between people with different genders and educational backgrounds.

Keywords

Intention to purchase, Methods of Promotion, Retention Blend, Advertisement, Personal Sale

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i5/2892
The Impact of Workplace Incivility on Employee Absenteeism and Organization Commitment
Author(s): Muhammad Zia-ud-Din, Arifa Arif, Muhammad Aqib Shabbir      Pages: [205-221]
Abstract

Workplace incivility can cause absenteeism; along with employees, the purpose of this study is to check the factors of incivility and how it can be control. Data is analyses through Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21.The respondents of this research are nurses located in hospitals in Faisalabad. The sample size is two hundred out of which 184 is considered. The hypothesis generated for the study was tested at 0.05.Data is analyzed through descriptive and inferential tests on the responses gathered. The results of this study showed that there is a significant relationship between workplace incivility and Employee absenteeism. Workplace Incivility has positive relation with employee absenteeism. The results also signifies that organizational commitment partially moderate the relationship between employee workplace incivility and absenteeism. This research also presents conclusion, recommendations, and implications for future researchers.

Keywords

Workplace Incivility, Absenteeism, Organization Commitment

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i5/2893
Abstract

With the strengthening of global economic integration as well as the rapid development and the improvement of maturity of the third party logistics industry, the strong competitive pressure of the international and domestic market puts forward higher requirements for the third party logistics. the key to win the competition lies in the cultivation and promotion of core competence. The paper aims to explore the problem of core competences. Firstly, the concept of core competence is put forward; and to analyze the influencing factors. Secondly, taking Rongqing logistics company as an example to explore the problem in the process of building core competence of the third party logistics enterprise. Finally, to put forward measures, strategies and suggestions on building the core competitiveness of the third party logistics enterprise.

Keywords

Third party logistics, Core Competence, Rongqing logistics.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i5/2894