International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences


Volume 8, Issue 1 (January, 2018)

Entrepreneurial Orientation and Usage of External Business Support for SMEs
Author(s): Mohd Nor Hakimin Yusoff, Fakhrul Anwar Zainol, Hasannuddin Hassan      Pages: [1-11]

The objective of this study is to examine the level of entrepreneurial orientation of users and non-users of external suppoert services, this study adopted a cross sectional design and quantitative data was collected from various sectors of SMEs. Findings of this study revealed that users of external business support services have higher level of entrepreneurial orientation compared to the non-users. The results statistically support the eentrepreneurial orientation roles in stimulate the usage of the services. In other words, the performance of the firm may have influenced by direct contact between eentrepreneurial orientation and the use of external support services. Entrepreneurial Orientation is one of the valuable firm resources that may potentially influence the usage of the external support services which may influenced firms’ performance.


Business Support, Entrepreneurial Orientation, SMEs, Perfomance

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v8-i1/3776
The Model of Istinbat by the Shariah Advisory Council of Central Bank of Malaysia
Author(s): Fathullah Al Haq Muhamad Asni, Jasni Sulong      Pages: [12-23]

The dynamism of muamalat affairs and Islamic finance has undergone rapid development, and that it becomes increasingly complex. The Islamic scholars recognize this development as in line with the changing times, in which, the objective of shariah is for the benefit of the human beings. Nevertheless, the nas of the Islamic law is limited while the developments is in advance, which very need the role of ijtihad to play its function in dealing with the situation. Notwithstanding the facts, ijtihad must be carried out on consistent methodology, so that the shariah resolutions are competitive and trustworthy. Unfortunately, problems occur when the Shariah Advisory Council (SAC) of the Central Bank, the highest governing body established by the law and has the authority in decision-making regarding Islamic finance in Malaysia, does not submit clear rules and procedures in the issuance of shariah resolutions. This has resulted the decision being challenged in court. Hence, this study is aimed at drawing up a specialized istinbat methodology in muamalat affairs and Islamic finance. This study has been done qualitatively by referring to manuscripts of usul al-fiqh, muamalat, Islamic finance, and statutes. In the findings, the study discovers that there were products approved by the SAC which have been alleged as non-compliant to shariah. This happened because there is no strong legal framework outlined. Therefore, the study attempts to outline a model of istinbat methodology in Islamic banking issues which meets the shariah that can be used as a guideline by the SAC in issuing a resolution.


Shariah Advisory Council, Central Bank, Ijtihad, Shariah Resolution, Istinbat

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v8-i1/3778
Influence of Innovation on Growth of Women Micro Businesses in Bugesera District
Author(s): John Kamanzi, G.S. Namusonge, Ndabaga Eugene      Pages: [24-42]

Innovation has been defined as Innovation has been studied at various levels: macro, micro (or company) and project level (Goffin and Pfeiffer, 1999). According to Gopalakrishnan and Damanpour (1997) there is no generally accepted definition of innovation. They declare that researchers within each field conceptualize innovation differently, and have differing views of the impact they can? have? on? a? firm’s productivity, growth, survival and performance. However, they emphasis that the criteria used to conceptualize innovation in various disciplines are not entirely independent of each other. Urabe (1988) states that innovation is the generation of a new idea and its implementation into a new product, process, or service. Afuah (2003) says that innovation is the employment of newly acquired knowledge which then provides a new product or service that customers want; this can be simplified to invention and commercialization. This study sought to establish the influence of innovation on growth of women micro business in Bugesera District. Specifically, the study sought to: assess the influence of innovation on growth of women micro business. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. The target population of this study comprised of all registered women micro businesses by the district authorities as at 01st January 2017 that have been in operation with a focus on the women micro businesses. Primary data was collected by structured questionnaires. Secondary data was collected from district documents and relevant publications in referred journals. The collected data was edited, coded and entered into SPSS software for analysis. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. In particular, Regression Analysis was used to investigate the relationships between hypothesized variables. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was also used to investigate whether independent variables had combined effect on the dependent variable. The findings were presented using figures and tables. The study found out that the study showed that innovation was key to making better innovative decisions which were assessed by managers’ creativity strategy and their ability to new ideas which can be acquired through training. The study however established that, innovation had significant and positive influence on women micro businesses in Bugesera District. This study is envisaged to aid in the development of policy documents to grow women micro business in Rwanda.


Innovation, Growth, Women Micro Business, Creativity, Idea Management, Risk Management, Bugesera District

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v8-i1/3779

This research work was conducted among students of Kirinyaga University. It was aimed at identifying the pull and push motivations for entrepreneurial engagement among the college students. For each category of motivations, three indicators were picked and used to gauge the level of the motivations. The target population was 1549 and after running the sampling model, a sample size of 308 was picked. Students were then stratified into homogenous groups of Department or school, the course undertaken, year of study and then semester of study (whether first or second). Simple Random sampling was then used to obtain representative samples from each of the homogenous groupings. Questionnaires were the main data collection tool and contained closed-ended and open-ended test items. Questionnaires were administered to the students through their class representatives and the filled questionnaires were picked back after an agreed time. In general, about 90% of the questionnaires were received back from the students. Of this 90%, approximately 80% were adequately and correctly filled and were used for data analysis. In order to obtain objective data for determination of variability between the genders, a test item on gender of the respondent was included. Data analysis revealed that between the pull and push motivations, the latter played a more significant role in determining student engagement in entrepreneurial activities. This is significant since it is expected that students would go into Entrepreneurship ‘willingly’ and not because of lack of a ‘better option’. Policy makers would find this research significant to inform their policy decisions in making entrepreneurial engagement among the youth an attractive option for national economic growth and development.


Necessity Based, Opportunity Based, Youth Entrepreneurship

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v8-i1/3780

The internal audit function within an organization is no longer confined to the conventional compliance or operational audit. Specialized internal audit has emerged with the rise of certain service sectors including the Islamic financial institutions (IFIs). This specialised audit known as shariah audit is purported to safeguard the welfare of faith-based investors by ensuring a shariah compliant IFIs. Effective shariah audit requires competent internal auditors. Shortage in qualified and competent internal auditors to conduct effective shariah audit has however become one of the challenges for the IFIs. This paper explores these challenges through the perspective of practitioners within the IFI in Malaysia as one of the active players in providing the Islamic banking products and services to the Muslims’ users. This study adopted a multiple case-study to gather the data on challenges of shariah auditors of Islamic bank to perform their duty. Interview was conducted with a representative from the IFIs regulator and 30 internal auditors from four types of IFIs directly involved in conducting the shariah audit. There is currently a lack of standard operating procedure on the recruitment of specialized internal auditors in the IFI from a mixed practice on the composition of specialized internal auditors recruited by the IFIs with most of them being accounting qualified candidates. The IFIs also prefer to hire either internally or externally acquired experienced internal auditors. The main challenge in hiring this type of internal auditors is to have professionals with vast knowledge, skills and experiences in accounting, auditing and shariah related matters. This study contributes to the importance of competency practice among Islamic banking personnel. It also contributes to the management policy in the recruitment or training of shariah auditing professionals of IFIs in Malaysia. This empirical research contributes to the importance of competency practice among Islamic banking personnel besides management policy in the recruitment or training of shariah auditing professionals of IFIs in Malaysia.


Internal Auditor, Competency, Shariah Audit, Shariah Auditor.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v8-i1/3781
The Effect of Internal Marketing on Affective Commitment: A Marketing Mix Approach for the Islamic Bank Employees
Author(s): Aamir Abbas, Gul Afshan, Touqeer ul Haq, Iqra Aslam      Pages: [75-86]

Purpose – If employee of the industry is giving superior services to the customer, that customer will be progressively pleased so there is great importance if internal marketing. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of internal marketing (Marketing mix approach) on affective commitment of employees in Islamic banks of Punjab, Pakistan. Design/methodology/approach – A model was made to examine the factors affecting affective commitment and it was tested empirically using a sample of 543. All the respondents were branch managers of different Islamic banks. The questionnaire strategy was used for this research. SPSS was used to run regression. Findings – The paper found "internal price", "internal promotion", "internal physical evidence", "internal people", "internal product" and "internal place" to be the most effective components of the internal marketing construct of the research model, making them key influencers of affective commitment. Research limitations/implications – This study is confined to two things one is organizational commitment “Affective commitment” and other is internal marketing. The scope of this study is limited and it is case from the Islamic banks of Punjab, Pakistan. Practical implications – The paper outlines ways to effectively use internal marketing (Marketing Mix Approach) for making employees committed to bank. A marketing manager or policy maker can follow these outlines for making policy for employees.


Internal marketing, Integrated Marketing, Organizational commitment, Job Satisfaction, Inter-functional coordination and integration, Motivation.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v8-i1/3787
Ghana’s Reserves and Currency Volatility: A Comparison with Empirical Theories
Author(s): Yao Hongxing, Abdul Rashid Abdul Rahaman      Pages: [87-99]

This paper uses a VEC model to assess the relationships between macroeconomic variables and how they conform to empirical theories of an open economy in literature. We assess the reserve policy of Ghana, and the effect of exchange rates on exports. We also examined the effects of foreign direct investments on the volatility of the exchange rates, and the ability of the central bank to roll on bail outs in times of financial turmoil. We found an increase in exports during episodes of currency appreciation in both time periods, and also, the increase in FDIs led to depreciation of the currency. We again found that, Ghana’s reserves policy is not a planned intervention, and mostly depends on occasional large inflows. This is consistent with the findings of the IMF staff as stipulated in the article iv consultation report (2017). We also found positive correlation between reserves and the financial sector. This is in conformity with the empirical works of Lane and Burke (2001) and also Obstfeld et al., (2010). However, we could not confirm the findings in Greenspan (1999) and Bussiere et al., (2015) of short term debts been the most important metric for international reserves neither did we find evidence that reserves accumulation is associated with depreciating currencies in developing economies.


Reserves, Exchange Rates, Broad money (M2), Foreign Direct Investments, Exports.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v8-i1/3788
Analysis of Mathematics Anxiety among B.Ed. students: A Case Study
Author(s): Sehar Mangi, Shahid Hussain      Pages: [100-116]

The present study is an attempt to analyze the Mathematical Anxiety among student-teacher of district Sukkur of Sindh Pakistan. The aim of study was to analyze the causes of mathematics anxiety among student teacher, and to examine the relationship between mathematics anxiety and avoidance to teach mathematics. Keep in view the topic of present research the mixed methods approach was employed. The quantitative data gathered through surveys while the qualitative data collected through interview protocol to help elaborate on the quantitative data. The sample of study comprises of students of B.Ed. program of district Sukkur and another tool was interview protocol. Data were gathered with the help of an online survey which was completed by 50 student-teachers and follow up face-to-face interviews with five of them. Quantitative data was analyzed in percentages and for qualitative (interviews) data was analyzed by using thematic approach. The findings show that the huge number of student- teachers have mathematics anxiety due to bad experience in Mathematics classroom experience caused by the teacher’s traditional attitude and traditional strategies of teaching. Recommendations are made to decrease the development of mathematics anxiety among the student- teachers and break re-occurring cycle of anxiety. Teachers can do away with student’s misconception while teaching mathematics by using interactive approaches of teaching. While teaching math’s, the focus of teacher should be students leaning not teaching. More focus should be on formative assessment in Math’s classroom. Math’s should be presented as an enjoyable subject rather than a difficult subject.


Mathematics Anxiety, B.Ed Student, Mathematics Avoidance, Sukkur.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v8-i1/3797

One of the main purposes of this research study was to evaluate the difference aspects of Primary School teachers (PSTs) 12000 program with respect to relevance of content and teaching and teaching pedagogies to teacher’s professional requirements. The issue and challenges while implementing the training program in the province of Sindh and existing support (monitoring and follow up) mechanism have also been critically examined. The research was designed in a qualitative paradigm; individual interviews, focus group discussions, monitoring visits and documents analysis were used to explore the realities and the finding were triangulated. The research participants were primary school teachers, master trainers, course directors, district educators, and district education officers. Major findings from the study revealed that the PST 12000 in-service Teacher’s Training Program was launched in 2003 under ADP scheme with an amount Rs. 76.36 million. Under PST 12000 program 9735 teachers, (51% male and 49% female have been trained. The data collected from group discussion was consolidated. The revealed that before the start of the program no any required assessment survey was conducted. It was found the program improved upon teacher’s content knowledge but it did not help them design activities (teaching material) according to the needs of diverse learners. The findings related to master trainers (MTs) showed that the subjects such as English, Maths and science were taught by those MTs who did not have specific qualifications (i.e. Master degree in Science, Maths or English). Although MTs content knowledge about their subject was the satisfactory, yet it was difficult for them to develop teaching resources and design activities according to the level of their learners (i.e. PST) majority of MTs only used textbooks as a teaching material, only a few MTs were seen with supplementary material. The finding related to course directors to conduct training program. The course directors only focused on the attainment of quantitative targets instead of improving the quality of teaching and learners process. The analysis of interviews conducted with district officers’ education showed that there was communication gap between DOE (academic& Training), ADOE, SPE and teachers. The data further indicates that the District Education Department had no mechanism For Following up the teachers after training. The data collected from monitoring visits indicated that, most of the centers, lacked basic facilities such as OHP, sufficient computers, Science laboratories and well-equipped classrooms. The subject of IT is taught without computers. If the computers were there then a large number was out of order. Majority of the monitoring officers agreed that the content delivered was according to aims and objectives of the training program but it was difficult for MTs to integrate this content with particular pedagogy. In the light of the finding, the study recommended the conduct of a required assessment survey before the start of a new training, revision of training manuals according to new curriculum promotion of action research in all teachers’ training program programs, increase in the budget for activities, arrangement of trainings for MTs according to new curriculum, 100% increase in the remuneration of PSTs, Master trainers and course directors. In order to create interest and an environment of competition in the training program Course Participants should be giving some kind of awards/ best performance certificates. There is a need to develop follow up support mechanism for teachers who have got training. In this regard, PITE and district education department should work together.


Curriculum, Evaluation, Primary School Teacher (PST), Implementation, In-service Training, Monitoring, PST 12000 program

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v8-i1/3798
The Impact of Foreign Direct Investment, Domestic Investment, Trade Openness And Population on Economic Growth: Evidence from Asean-5 Countries
Author(s): Abdul Rahim Ridzuan, Muhammad Waqas Khalid, Nur Izzati Zarin, Abdul Rauf Ridzuan, Irzan Ismail, Norsabrena Norizan      Pages: [128-143]

This paper aims to evaluate the determinants of growth in ASEAN5 countries (Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines and Singapore) with a special highlight is given to the foreign direct investment (FDI). ASEAN5 have received a significant amount of FDI inflow from the past three decades. The FDI inflows bring several contributions to the economies of the host countries. For example, the presence of foreign firms often implies transfers of technological capacity to the domestic countries. Besides, the competition, standard and knowledge of foreign markets can induce positive spillover effects on the productivity and competitiveness of the local firms. Other potential driver of growth such as gross domestic investment (GDI), trade oppness (TO) and population (POP) were also tested in this research paper. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to identify the relationship between GDP and its independent variables (FDI, GDI, TO, and POP) based on classical, neo classical and neo liberal school of thoughts using annual data starting from 1970 to 2013. The findings showed that there is a long run cointegration exist for Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand and Philippines. FDI is found to have positive relationship with growth in Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia. Moreover, GDI is also found to be significantly influence the growth of these countries besides POP and TO. But in this case, the effect of GDI is larger than the effect of FDI thus confirming dependency theory. Overall, we can conclude that all the variables used in these studies are indeed very important towards generating growth in ASEAN5 countries. As for the case of Singapore, although there is no long run cointegration detected, the short run estimation revealed that FDI and GDI still play significant roles in determining the growth in this country.


FDI, Economic growth, ASEAN5, ARDL

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v8-i1/3799
Do Financial Development and Inflation Influences Malaysia Economic Growth? An Application of Bound Test
Author(s): Abdul Rahim Ridzuan, Muhammad Waqas Khalid, Nur Izzati Zarin, Mohd Idham Md Razak, Abdul Rauf Ridzuan, Irzan Ismail, Norsabrena Norizan      Pages: [144-155]

It is generally thought that there is a negative long-term relationship between inflation and growth and a positive long-term relationship between financial development and growth. The existing empirical literature suggests that the finance-growth relationship is more robust than the inflation-growth relationship. This paper empirically examines the short and long run inflation led growth nexus as well as finance led growth nexus during the period ranging from 1985 up to 2010 by using time series technique known as ARDL approach. Besides inflation, we also included other significant variables such as real gross domestic investment, foreign direct investment inflow and openness ratio to border the scope of this research. The findings revealed that inflation led growth nexus is valid for Malaysia and contributed the highest growth towards Malaysia economy as compared to financial development and other selected macroeconomic determinants.


Inflation led growth nexus, Finance led growth nexus, ARDL

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v8-i1/3800
Talent Management: An Escalating Strategic Focus in Bangladeshi Banking Industry
Author(s): Sharif Hosen, Md Asadul Islam, Mohd Mursyid Arshad, Arif Md Khan, Md. Kausar Alam      Pages: [156-166]

The aim of this study is to justify the talent management (TM) system in a Bangladeshi Commercial Bank. Hence, previous research articles have been reviewed and primary data relating to selected bank have been collected from semi-structured interviews and some reliable and updated secondary sources for selected Bank’s website and other sites of Bangladesh Central Bank to achieve the aim of the study. The study finds several key practices of TM that includes recruitment, talent development, knowledge management, social media, performance management, and rewards. The limitation of this study is that this study is not empirically tasted. The scope of the study focuses on banking sector in Bangladesh. The study recommends that HR managers should embrace TM practices of the case bank to effectively manage their workforce. This study is the first study to uphold TM in banking sector of Bangladesh.


Bangladesh, Talent management, Bank, Talent Development.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v8-i1/3801
Influence of Capital Structure to the Growth of Women Micro Businesses in Bugesera District
Author(s): John Kamanzi, G.S. Namusonge, Ndabaga Eugene      Pages: [167-186]

Women micro business play a great role in providing employment and contribute towards the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Rwanda and any other Nation (Boudreaux, Kenneth. 2007). To achieve this feat, there is a need to properly manage the available financial capital. Working Capital Management which is one of the components of capital structure is expected to play a role in this process. Frank, Murray, & Goyal, Vidhan. (2009). This study therefore examined the influence of Capital structure on the growth of women micro business in Bugesera District. The study was anchored on the research objective which was to examine influence of entrepreneurial capital structure to the growth of women micro businesses establishing whether loan accessibility, cashflow and capital stability, influence the growth of women micro business in Bugesera District. The study adopted a descriptive survey design Cooper, Donald, Schindler, Pamela, & Sun, jianmin. (2006). The target population of this study comprised of all registered women micro businesses by the district authorities as at 01st January 2017 that have been in operation with a focus on the women micro businesses. Primary data was collected by structured questionnaires. Secondary data was collected from district documents and relevant publications in referred journals. The collected data was edited, coded and entered into SPSS software for analysis. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. In particular, Regression Analysis was used to investigate the relationships between hypothesized variables. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was also used to investigate whether independent variables had combined effect on the dependent variable. Regression Models were then used. The results of the study indicated that all the components of Capital structure (loan accessibility, cashflow and capital stability) influence the growth of women micro business in Bugesera District. The study also recommends that women micro business should among other things strive to shorten the cash conversion cycle, utilize the value of relationship with suppliers and develop strong alliance, seek knowledge on stock optimization techniques, introduce more and elaborate credit terms, Government at all levels to be more involved in financing micro-enterprises and financial institution such as commercial banks should also be ready to provide loan facilities to micro business with less stringent conditionality. The findings were presented using figures and tables. The study found out that capital structure was key to making better financial decisions. Loan and capital stability management need to be addressed to keep proper growth. The study however established that, capital structure had significant and positive influence on growth of women micro businesses in Bugesera District. This study is envisaged to aid in the development of policy documents to grow women micro business in Rwanda.


Loan Accessibility; Cashflow; Capital Stability; Women Micro Business, Bugesera District; Capital Structure, Growth

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v8-i1/3802
Work-Family Conflict, Family-Work Conflict and its Effect on Emotional Exhaustion and Affective Commitment
Author(s): Ida Bagus Agung Dharmanegara, I Made Yogiarta, Ida Bagus Komang Suarka      Pages: [187-202]

The present study developed and tested an integrative model of the work-family interface consist of work-family conflict (WFC) and family-work conflict on affective commitment directly and indirectly through emotional exhaustion. In recognizing the highly stressful nature of the microfinance profession, analyses were based on existing questionnaire data from 244 participants (204 male and 40 female officers) who were full-time professional employees of Lembaga Perkreditan Desa (LPD) – village credit institutions in Bali. Two of four hypotheses are rejected in this study. In addition, the study has shown that emotional exhausting has a mediating effect on the relationship between work-family conflict and affective commitment. This pattern of mediating role is not suitable in the relationship between family-work conflict and affective commitment. Results also generally provide support for further research; the limitations and practical implications of these findings are discussed.


Work-family Conflict, Family-work Conflict, Emotional Exhaustion, Affective Commitment.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v8-i1/3803
Application of Selected Facets of RepTrak™ Reputation Model on Carlsberg Malaysia as One of the Companies in Tobacco, Gambling, Alcohol and Pornography (TGAP) Industry
Author(s): Chan Tak Jie, Thirumagal Sathasevam, Putri Nursabrina Muhammad Noor, Anis Munira Khiruddin, Nurul Ain Mohd Hasan      Pages: [203-217]

Corporate reputation is an intangible asset that brings many benefits to organizations. Past empirical studies showed that specific facets of RepTrak™ model positively influenced the reputation. However, the relevance of applying the RepTrak™ model that focuses on the Tobacco, Gambling, Alcohol, and Pornography (TGAP) industry in developing economy is still under researched. Thus, this paper aims to examine the selected facets of the RepTrak™ model by incorporating the model to cases of Carlsberg Malaysia known as one of the TGAP companies in Malaysia. The selected facets understudied are products and services, innovation, workplace, citizenship, and governance. The reviews of the themes revealed that Carlsberg Malaysia is congruent with the selected facets based on the RepTrak™ model. Authors called upon the management, especially the corporate communication or public relations department of TGAP companies to focus on the facets that has been suggested and aligned with the corporate social responsibility to sustain their organizational reputation for long term benefits.


Carlsberg Malaysia, Corporate Communication, Corporate Reputation, Corporate Social Responsibility, Reptrak™ Reputation Model, TGAP Industry

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v8-i1/3804
Employee Turnover in the Hospitality Industry using Herzberg’s Two-Factor Motivation-Hygiene Theory
Author(s): Bettye L. Holston-Okae, Richard J. Mushi      Pages: [218-248]

The purpose of this correlational study, grounded in the motivation-hygiene theory, was to assess the relationship between employee turnover intention and job satisfaction, employee compensation, employee engagement, employee motivation, and work environment. A convenience sample of 156 hospitality employee from Western Georgia; Central Mississippi; and North Central Texas completed an online survey. Simultaneous multiple linear regression was the statistical technique used to analyze this data. In the final model, the 5 predictors accounted for approximately 36% of the variance in turnover intention, and the result was statistically significant, (R² =. 36, F (5, 105) = 11.57, p < .001). Motivation was not a significant predictor of employee’s turnover intentions. Ultimately, hospitality leaders’ ability to implemented strategies and policies into their business practice to reduce high turnover is vital for organizational to retain skilled worker while maintaining profitability. The study underscores the importance of job satisfaction, employee compensation, employee engagement, and work environment to reduce employee turnover in the hospitality industry. The fact that motivation was not a significant predictor of turnover intentions, this study opens avenues for further research on turnover intentions and motivation. Human beings are complex individuals and so what motivates them is also complex. Further research is needed to examine responses of individuals on different forms and processes of motivation to provide a more meaningful contribution of the role that motivation plays on turnover intentions, not only in the hospitality industry but other industries as well.


Employee Turnover, Job Satisfaction, Employee Compensation, Employee Engagement, Employee Motivation, Work Environment and Hospitality Industry

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v8-i1/3805

The central aim of the study was to examine the patterns of attitudes toward change (ATC) of senior assistants and teachers in Malaysian secondary schools. A total of 1,014 respondents were involved in the final analysis. The findings revealed that a) the senior assistants scored significantly higher than the teachers in all the three domains of ATC; b) the senior assistants and the teachers hold cognitively-based ATC; c) as a whole, senior assistants scored at the quadrant of Embracing whereas the teachers scored at the quadrant of Acceptance; d) in terms of quadrants, the senior assistants scored at the quadrant of Embracing for Cognitive, Affective and Behavioural whereas the teachers scored at the quadrant of Embracing for Cognitive and Affective but at the quadrant of Acceptance for Behavioural. In summary, there is a need for relevant parties to uncover the real situation to improve teacher attitudes toward change. Improvement of quality of teachers’ attitudes is an obligatory condition for high quality school education as teachers are the change implementers who are closest to the student. Indeed, the central pivot of any school change is the acceptance or the heart of the teachers to work through the change process.


Attitudes Toward Change; Cognitive Responses To Change; Affective Responses To Change; Behavioural Responses To Change; School Change

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v8-i1/3806
The Impact of FDI in Mining on Kosovo’s Economic Growth
Author(s): Alketa Bucaj      Pages: [266-292]

This paper focuses on the role of Foreign Direct Investment inflows in the Mining Sector to Kosovo’s Economic Growth. Using the model from endogenous growth theories and using Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) as the methodical technique, the results suggest that FDI in mining has a positive and significant impact on GDP per capita which was used as a proxy for growth. This confirms the hypothesis that there is a positive relation between FDI in mining and growth. The coefficient for FDI in mining is positive but it is quite small suggesting a very minimal effect on GDP per capita, however it suggests that there is necessity to sustain and attract further FDI in order for the economy to benefit. Furthermore, the investment climate in the country is evaluated and policy measures are suggested in order to attain the goal of increasing FDI in the sector and increasing the benefits from FDI in mining to the rest of the economy. These suggestions include: introducing light screening mechanisms to FDI in the mining sector in order to regulate procedural technicalities and provide a more transparent reporting method; settling the status of existing mining sites that are under the Privatization Agency administration; create a “one-stop-shop” for all procedures related to establishing a new company, licensing and reporting in the Independent Commission on Mines and Minerals; and ,lowering export taxes for the mining companies that invest in processing plants in order to positively incentivize investment in processing plants that will localize FDI benefits.


FDI, GDP Growth, Mining Sector

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v8-i1/3807
The Assessment of Affective Domain among PALAPES in UPSI
Author(s): Azali Bin Rahmat, Mohd Izwan Bin Shahril, Norkhalid Bin Salimin, Mohamad Ali Roshidi Bin Ahmad, Ali Md Nadzalan      Pages: [293-299]

This study was conducted to examine the level of affective domain among Reserve Officers Training Team (PALAPES) after underwent three years of training module. 105 PALAPES cadet officers were recruited as participants in this study. Co-curriculum index assessments (IPKo) was used to assess cognitive domain achievement level. Results showed all the cadets are only at the ‘Good’ and ‘Moderate’ levels for all the affective items that have been given. No significant difference was found in the mean affective level between male cadet and female cadet. Results demonstrate the advantages for the university students to involve in co-curricular activities such as PALAPES in enhancing their affective domain.


Affective Domain, PALAPES, UPSI

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v8-i1/3808
Enhancing the Self-Efficacy and Assertiveness Level Among the Bullied Victim School Students By Using Cognitive Behaviour Theraphy (CBT) in Group Counselling Approach
Author(s): Amin Al Haadi Bin Shafie, Nurul Ashikin Binti Ahmat Miskam, Norsayyidatina Binti Che Rozubi, Azad Athahiri Bin Anuar      Pages: [300-313]

Bullied victims indeed do feel necessity for helps in elevating their self-efficacy and assertiveness in order for them to be able to develop coping skills in confronting this phenomenal delinquency. This research was group counselling-based with the employment of Cognitive Behavioral Theraphy (CBT) over the 8 bully victim students for 5 intervention sessions (research group). The Peer Aggresion Coping Self Efficacy Scale (PACSES) and Rathus Assertiveness Schedule (RAS) were untilized to measure the level of self-efficacy and assertiveness respectively among the research group respondents for both pre and post tests. This research revealed that the self- efficacy and assertiveness level among the research group respondents got positively increased after undergoing the sessions. Therefore, this research advocated the employment of CBT for school counsellors to assist bullied victim students for developing their coping skills and self- empowerment in facing the bullying situations.


CBT, Bully, Peers, Self-Efficacy, Coping Skill, Assertiveness

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v8-i1/3809

This study investigates the influence of parental background of secondary school students on their academic performance in Islamic Studies in Nigeria. The cross-sectional research design was adopted for this study. The population of the study consists of all senior secondary school students in north-central Nigeria. A total of 384 Islamic Studies students from seven states that constitute north-central geo-political zone of Nigeria served as participants in this study. This study was a quantitative research; questionnaire was used as the instrument for data collection which was based on the secondary school students’ parental background such as education, occupation, income and involvement. Validity and reliability of instrument were established by the opinions of experts. In addition, a pilot test was carried out by reporting the Cronbach’s Alpha co-efficient for the internal consistency of the instrument. SPSS was used for data analysis and multiple regressions were also used to answer research hypotheses formulated for this study. This finding indicates that the level of parents’ education, prestigious occupation of parents, income level of parents and involvement of parents in their children’s education are capable of enhancing academic performance of students especially in Islamic Studies. Parents should collaborate with Islamic Studies teachers and school management so as to foster the performance of secondary schools Islamic Studies students in North-Central Nigeria.


Parental Background, Academic Performance, Islamic Studies, Islamic Education

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v8-i1/3810
Factors Influencing Brand Loyalty in Durable Goods Market
Author(s): Abdelbaset M. Alkhawaldeh, Bilal Mohammad Eneizan      Pages: [326-339]

Industrial sector plays radical role in the economic development around the world. However, in Jordan, this vital sector faces some problems. They are not able to compete with foreign brands, and not paying more attention to brand loyalty. Brand loyalty is still a researchable area. Brand loyalty has become a vital strategy and has greatly contributed to brands success. Brand loyalty is affected by many variables. This study aims at identifying the impact of brand awareness, image and perceived quality in building loyalty towards the durable goods brand in Jordan since there is a debate in the literature about the significant relationship between these constructs on brand loyalty. Therefore, two-hundred valid surveys were obtained from the customers in Jordan. Data were analyzed using PLS-SEM technique. This study found direct significant relationships among the tested constructs. Finally, it introduces a number of recommendations and set of directions for future research.


Brand Loyalty, Awareness, Image, Perceived Quality, Durable Goods

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v8-i1/3811
Factors Affecting Acceptance of Mobile Banking in Developing Countries
Author(s): Ashour A. N. Mostafa, Bilal Eneizan      Pages: [340-351]

This study aimed to investigate factors influencing the acceptance of mobile banking in Libya. To assist in identifying these factors, a detailed research was carried out to identify the current problems faced by the Libyan banks customers, the acceptance of mobile banking in different countries around the world, the importance of adopting this technology to both parties: banks and customers in Libya. The sample elements consisted of 319 existing customers within the banking in Tripoli. They were selected at random depending on their willingness to participate in the research study. A survey was developed to obtain responses from various segments of the society. The findings showed that factors facilitating conditions, perceived self-Efficacy, Perceived ease of use, and perceived usefulness, and have significant imapcts on consumer’s behavioral intentions for the acceptance and usage of mobile banking technology in Libya.


Mobile Banking

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v8-i1/3812

The aim of this study is to achieve several objectives, foremost of which is to identify the need for re-enriching the work of the workers by test and apply the job characteristics model to the sample of 211 participants from the official media sector by using the job diagnostic survey based on five main dimensions of the tasks (Skills diversity, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback). By using the available techniques, the validity of the hypotheses specified by the model was tested, and then compared to the average working dimensions of the sample with the standard averages attached to it, after dividing the sample into two sub-samples by type of work (media and administrative) The results showed that the motivation potential scores are often below than required level. Therefore, it is recommended to review the design of the current business. In terms of ranking, the media works ranked first, then administrative.


Job characteristics, Hackman & Oldham model.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v8-i1/3813
Religion Fundamentalism in Islamic Students
Author(s): Wahyu Hidayat, Jamil Bin Ahmah, Mohd. Isa Bin Hamzah      Pages: [372-382]

The issue of fundamentalism has become a global issue. Fundamentalism rejects diversity and tends to be prejudiced towards other religions. This study aimed to determine the fundamentalism's relationship to multiculturalism and the prejudice towards non-Muslims. This study involved 400 Muslim students in Parepare, South Sulawesi, Indonesia using questionnaires. The findings showed a negative and significant relationship of fundamentalism towards multiculturalism as well as the positive and significant relationship of fundamentalism against the prejudice towards non-Muslims.


Islamic Fundamentalism, Multiculturalism, Prejudice to Non-Muslims

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v8-i1/3814
Utility Maximization Model of Teaching Effectiveness in Economics
Author(s): Mahmud A. Mansaray      Pages: [383-408]

The current research explored the utility maximization concept of teaching effectiveness of economics with the application of the student ratings of instruction (SRI) measuring device at a university in the southeastern US. The research methodology was quantitative, and the data were the 175 students’ responses on definite items of teaching efficiency for the spring 2017 semester SRI survey at the university. Using the Cronbach’s alpha statistic, the results disclosed the alpha for the 15 items on the measuring scale, which in all evaluated teaching efficiency and student motivation at the university was about .95, suggesting the items established a measuring scale that had applied internal stability dependability for the SRI design. Additionally, applying the principal axis factoring with varimax rotation, suggested the two indexes of teaching effectiveness and student self-motivation had robust positive loadings of > .40, and significantly interlinked with teaching effectiveness and student learning success. Consequently, this sanctioned the construct validity of the SRI measuring design in evaluating teaching quality. However, the research was restricted to one semester analysis of the SRI design, which may be insufficient to confirm the generalizability of the design as a measurement of teaching effectiveness. Subsequent scholarships must embrace additional semesters for a comprehensive generalizability.


Utility Maximization, Economics, Principal Axis Factoring, Cronbach’s Alpha, and Student Ratings of Instructor

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v8-i1/3815
The Impact of Entrepreneurial Motivation on Small Business Performance in Iraq
Author(s): Yousif Aftan, Mohamad Hanapi      Pages: [409-419]

The small business has become the backbone of industrialization not only in Iraq but globally, as the sector is regarding as a green field for investment not only to the rich but also the poor. It gives a firsthand job opportunity and provides a stable career lifestyle to the most common citizen in any country. The `objective of the study is to examine the impact of entrepreneurial motivation on small business performance in Iraq. The study was conducted using a sample of 300 small business owners in the nine Baghdad Provinces. The data was obtained using a self-administered questionnaire and using probability random sampling technique. The data obtained were analysed using statistical package of SPSS version 23 window for regression and correlation analysis. The result indicates that there is a significant relationship between entrepreneurial motivation and small business performance in Iraq, this shows entrepreneurial motivation influence on business performance and this motivate the entrepreneurs to be innovative and creative in their business activities. Furthermore, the paper suggested that more entrepreneurial factors should be employed in the future studies.


Entrepreneurial Motivation, Small Business, Performance, Baghdad and Iraq

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v8-i1/3816
Sustainable livelihood for a better Adaptation towards Climate Change among Small Scale Fishermen in Malaysia
Author(s): Asnarulkhadi Abu Samah, Hayrol Azril Mohamed Shaffril      Pages: [420-433]

Adaptation towards climate change among the community has becoming a pressing issue, hence, effort to strengthen it has become a priority. It is recognized that not every adaptation strategy fit to every group of community, each of the groups have their own strength. In this study, the focus is placed on one of the important groups in Malaysia – the small scale fishermen whereby efforts are placed to strategize specific climate adaptation strategies via intensification of their livelihood assets. Initially, the paper looks on the background of fisheries industry in Malaysia, the small scale fishermen in Malaysia and the climate change scenario in Malaysia. Then, it gears the readers to the discussions on the impacts of climate change on the livelihood assets, the need to strengthen the assets, the relations between the assets and subsequently to the prime aim of the paper – the recommendations to strengthen the small scale fishermen climate adaptation via the intensification of their livelihood assets.


Community Development, Adaptation Strategy, Sustainable Livelihood

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v8-i1/3817
Usage of Whatsapp in Relation to Employee Engagement in a Telecommunication Company
Author(s): Zaifunizam Ariffin dan Siti Zobidah Omar      Pages: [434-452]

WhatsApps application, the most talk-about mobile MIM application made available for any smartphone in the market. WhatsApp allows exchanging of real time text messages either to individual or group. The usage of WhatsApp has changed the way people communicate either personally and professionally. This paper is to investigate the relationship of WhatsApp usage and employee engagement in the organization. Almost all respondents use Whatapps and believe WhatsApp is a useful communication application. The paper indicates that there is a relationship between WhatsApp usage and employee engagement. Thus, WhatsApps application may be used as an effective internal communication tool to disseminate and sharing information


WhatsApp Application, Employee Engagement, Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), Social Media And Wireless Communication

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v8-i1/3818
Partial Mediators Influencing Entrepreneurial Competencies and the Performance of Small Hospitality Firm in Ghana
Author(s): Adelaide Spio-Kwofie, Hu Xuhua, Henry Asante-Antwi, Ruth Appiah      Pages: [453-464]

As successive Governments in Ghana invest more funds into the training of skilled personnel as well as reduce taxes on fuel, airport taxes and other taxes that affect travelers, private brands must also take steps to ensure a high maintenance culture and deploy their entrepreneurial competences to stimulate greater competitive scope and organizational capability to achieve higher performance. The study revisits this case in the context of small scale hospitality firms in Ghana to scrutinize the degree to which entrepreneurs’ competencies influence competitive scope and organizational capability to support performance. A collection of a robust feed-forward Artificial Neural networks (ANN) based on sigmoid basis function was used. We collected data from a sample of 321 managers and supervisors from ten regional capitals in Ghana. We deployed a sigmoid basis function neural networks to establish the autonomous and simultaneous mediating role of organizational capabilities and competitive scope in the interplay between entrepreneurial competencies and performance of small scale hospitality firms. Our study confirms that entrepreneurial competencies have a positive impact on SME performance. Firms’ managers with high levels of entrepreneurial competencies are able to scrutinize the environment for new opportunities and consolidate their competitive positions


Entrepreneurial Competence, Performance, Small and Medium Hospitality Industry, Competitive Market

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v8-i1/3819
Explicit Discourse Marker Instruction to Improve Coherence and Cohesion in Academic Writing
Author(s): Nor Ashikin Ab Manan, Nor Nadia Raslee      Pages: [465-483]

This quasi- experimental study examined the effects of explicit discourse marker (DM) instruction on ESL learners’ academic writing performance. Two intact groups of pre-degree students enrolled in an academic writing class at a public university were involved in the study. One group was assigned as the experimental group and the other was assigned as the control group. Both groups went through similar academic writing instruction employing the process-writing approach. However, the experimental group was also subjected to intensive instruction on the use of DMs. The study hopes to address the following research questions. RQ1: What are the effects of DM instruction on the subjects’ use of discourse markers in their Academic Essay Test (AET)? RQ2: What are the effects of DM instruction on the subjects’ AET scores for the three writing sections; ‘content’, ‘language’ and ‘organization’? It can be concluded that explicit teaching of DMs is beneficial in encouraging the use of DMs in the subjects’ academic essays. The experimental group was found to perform significantly better than the control group in the post AET. DM instruction does not only improve the ‘organization’ section of the essay but also the ‘language’ and ‘content’ sections as well. The effect size of the treatment on the post AET is medium in relation to ‘organization’ but large for ‘content’ and ‘language’.


Coherence, Cohesion, Discourse Markers, Academic Writing

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v8-i1/3820
Managing Related Party Transactions on Earnings Quality
Author(s): Mohd Taufik Mohd Suffian, Zuraidah Mohd Sanusi, Mohd Shatari Abd Ghafar      Pages: [484-496]

The quality of earnings reported in the financial statement is very vital as it will be the key characteristic to improve capital market efficiency. Prior researchers indicate that the Earnings Quality were affected by several factors such as analysts forecast, leverage requirements, and management opportunities. One of the crucial factors in determining Earnings Quality is Related Party Transactions. It has been used as a medium in committing fraud across the corporate world for the last 20 years. The key problem affiliated to Related Party Transactions is that the transactions are influenced by the relationship between parties involved in the transactions. Among the transactions between related parties are purchase and sale of properties (assets), and sale of goods. Earnings reported in the financial statements is said to be high quality when the reported earnings are free from management prejudice and show the actual results of operations. This paper provides a holistic view of the concept of Related Party Transactions and Earnings Quality. The second purpose is to provide a better understanding of the relationship between Related Party Transactions and Earnings Quality. The discussion of this study will provide suggestions for improvements in corporate culture.


Related Party Transactions, Earnings Quality, Corporate Scandals, Agency Theory

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v8-i1/3821
The Association Between Work-related Stressors and Work Performance: A case study among Executives of Group Human Capital of Maybank Berhad
Author(s): Izmayani Sa’adin, Abdul Malek A. Tambi, Sharifah Faezah Syed Abdul Karim, Nor Zarina Mohd Salim      Pages: [497-505]

The purpose of the study was to identify the relationship between work-related stressors and work performance among Group Human Capital executives of Maybank Berhad, the largest bank in Malaysia. A questionnaire survey was carried out at the bank’s head office in Kuala Lumpur. The questionnaire utilized a five-point Likert scale to measure five constructs, namely work stress, situational work control, work intensification, work relationship and work performance. A total of 99 executives participated in this study. Standard statistical data analysis techniques were used to obtain descriptive and inferential statistics from the data. In particular, correlation and regression analyses were used to test the relationship between work performance and the other variables. The findings of the study showed that situational work control had no significant relationship with work performance. Also work intensification and work relationship were found to have a negative relationship with work performance.


Situational work control, Work intensification, Work relationship, Work Performance, Work Stress

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v8-i1/3822
Instructors’ Beliefs on Critical Thinking and Their Classroom Practices: A Case Study
Author(s): Nurul Ain Hasni, Nur Hani Laily Ramli      Pages: [506-516]

The ability to think critically is an essential life skill which needs to be developed in order to compete in a global environment. Current literature reveals that explicit critical instruction, and practice of critical thinking (CT) strategies helps to improve learner’s performances. Hence, it is vital for instructors to have strong beliefs in critical thinking as it influences their classroom practice. The present study seeks to fill the gap between instructors’ beliefs as well as practices which serves to be important in improving the educational process. The aim of this study is to investigate how instructors perceived CT as well as their classroom instruction in teaching the skills among tertiary level learners. Further, it also investigates whether the constructs (beliefs and practices) of the instructors matched with one another. The participants of this study involved instructors from Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) located in Seri Iskandar Perak. Data were collected using exploratory qualitative approach and the findings were presented in a qualitative descriptive approach through interviews as well as observations.


Beliefs, Practices, Classroom Instruction, Critical Thinking

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v8-i1/3823

The indoor environmental quality (IEQ) can be describe in general as the measurement of the internal environment and parameters affecting the comfort of building occupants. This research study aims to examine the relationship between Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ), occupant’s satisfaction and productivity in selected green rated office buildings. The survey was conducted at four (4) rated Green Building Index (GBI) office buildings located in the heart of Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya, Malaysia. These selected office buildings was awarded with Platinum and Gold Provisional Certification respectively by the GBI Association Malaysia. There are twenty-five (25) items in Section A of the questionnaire while there are twelve (12) items on the respondent’s demographic profile and work place criteria that were allocated in section B of the questionnaire. The questionnaire was administrated to 350 occupants working in the rated green office buildings with responsive rate of 86%. The respondents were asked to select their preferences based on a seven-point Likert scale of agreement and satisfaction for Section A and multiple answer question for Section B. Descriptive analysis of this main study was conducted using the SPSS version 22. Meanwhile, the measurement and structural model analysis of this study was performed using the PLS-SEM: SMART PLS Version 3.2. There are four aspects of assessment in this measurement model that include indicator reliability, internal consistency reliability, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and multicollinearity evaluation. As for the structural model of this study, an analysis was conducted to verify the research hypothesis of this study. Hence, result of this main study indicated that there is a mix relationship between the Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) main variables with occupant’s satisfaction and productivity in green rated office building. These results highlighted the importance of the Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) dimensions of the thermal comfort perceiving occupant’s satisfaction in office building. Thus, also verified that there is a significant association between occupant’s satisfaction and perceived productivity in green rated Non-Residential New Construction (NRNC) building.


Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ), Green Building Index (GBI), Office Building, Occupant’s Satisfaction, Productivity

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v8-i1/3824
Language and Gender: Fear of Evaluation in Second Language Learning
Author(s): Mahfuzah Rafek, Nur Hani Laily Ramli      Pages: [531-540]

In Malaysian classroom context, language learning is usually perceived as ordinary and less troublesome when it comes to first language (Bahasa Malaysia). Nevertheless, one has to agree that complaints are frequently voiced regarding second language learning (English). The most prominent detectable problem is viewed during evaluation in class where students are struggling to perform due to fear. Banks (2008) has portrayed that fear-if left unattended- will eventually hamper the learning process. Apart from that, it has been proven that female and male perceive fear differently (Wicks-Nelson & Israel, 2006). Hence, it is necessary to further investigate the severity of the problem. This study is conducted to identify students' perceptions of Fear of Evaluation as well as to determine the level of fear (also known as anxiety) for different gender. The instrument used is a set of questionnaire adapted from the measurement scale called FLCAS (Foreign Language Class Anxiety Scale) which was introduced by Horwitz (1983). A total number of 56 university students are involved in this study.


Evaluation, Fear, Language Learning, Gender, Students

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v8-i1/3825
University Students’ Perceptions of YouTube Usage in (ESL) Classrooms
Author(s): Azurawati Zaidi, Farahidatul Akmar Awaludin, Rafidah Abd Karim, Nurul Farhani Che Ghani, Muhd Syahir Abdul Rani, Nooraileen Ibrahim      Pages: [541-553]

Persistent use of internet specifically social networking has provided vast opportunities to enhance the quality of teaching and learning of university students. The usage of YouTube videos in the classroom is imperative to meet the educational needs of the younger generation. While text-based resources have remained the standard for centuries, currently, with the fast pace of the development of technology, the usage of YouTube videos in teaching and learning has become a trend. There are a few studies conducted on students’ perceptions of using YouTube to learn the English language. Research suggests that this generation of individuals have different styles of learning due to their familiarity with technology. How students learn and gain information from watching YouTube videos in learning the English language is very important in teaching setting. Other studies that were conducted also explored students’ perceptions of YouTube as an effective tool to learn English among ESL learners. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate (RQ1) the students’ interests and (RQ2) the students’ perceptions on the use of YouTube in learning English. The results of this study revealed that students are highly interested to use YouTube in learning English. It was also discovered that the students have used YouTube to help them completed their course assignments and study tasks. Hence, it can be concluded that the students preferred to use English YouTube videos to help them enhance their English language proficiency.


YouTube, perceptions, interest, learning style, ESL learners.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v8-i1/3826