International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences


Volume 7, Issue 2 (February, 2017)

Determinants of Consumer Attitude for Nutritional Drinks: Evidences from Pakistan
Author(s): Muhammad Ibrahim Ansari, Mansoor Mumtaz, Niaz Hussain Buriro      Pages: [1-16]

Mal Nutrition has been a one of the biggest issues in the world over the last years. The prime purpose of this study is to explore the influencing factors of consumer attitude towards nutritional drinks. This study has taken into account the factors that influence consumer attitude as it is of immense importance for any company. This study is basically revolves around Nutritional drinks market of Karachi. The variables included in the research are Word of mouth (WOM), advertisement, celebrity endorsement, price and perceived risk. A Likert-scale questionnaire is distributed to the consumers. The questionnaire consists of the questions related to the dependent variable i.e. consumer attitude and predictors i.e. Word of mouth (WOM), advertisement, celebrity endorsement, price and perceived risk. Once the questionnaire is filled by the 350 customers, statistical tools are applied to the data. Reliability test, factor analysis and regression analysis are applied. The finding of the analysis reveals that word of mouth, advertisement, and perceived risk are positively affecting the customer attitude. From findings it becomes evident that word of mouth and perceived risk are the two most influential factors effecting customer attitude in Karachi. Nutritional drinks industries can increase customer attitude through getting product/brand endorsed by authentic certified organization, customer research, and differentiation strategy.


Consumer Attitude, Word of Mouth, Advertisement, Celebrity Endorsement, Price, Perceived Risk.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i2/2609
Teenage Pregnancy in Nigeria: Causes, Effect and Control
Author(s): ALABI O. T., Oni, Isaac Oluwafemi      Pages: [17-32]

Teenage Pregnancy, a case of under-aged girl usually within ages of thirteen to nineteen years becoming pregnant, is a serious cankerworm that has eaten deep to the fabric of our societies in this contemporary period. The term in every day speech usually refers to women who have not reached legal adulthood to become pregnant. This study focused on the prevalence of this act among the teenagers in Nigeria. The study investigated the general causes, effect and the way out of this social menace in our societies. The study adopts descriptive method to identify basic factors and their effects as they affect our societies. Some of the root causes identified are poverty, peer pressure and media influence while the effects include: school drop-out, inadequate care for the child born by teenage mother, health problems and a host of other vices. The study suggested adequate parental care, eradication of street hawking and inculcation of moral values through religious bodies as ways of reducing teenage pregnancy in Nigeria.


Teenagers, Teenage Pregnancy, Pregnancy, Sex, Health.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i2/2610
The Challenges of Employee’s Evaluation in Organizations
Author(s): Asadi Rahil      Pages: [33-45]

The main purpose of this paper is to improve and enhance the quality and quantity performance of employees in the organization to have a successful organization. This aim can be fulfilled and achieved with the actual, genuine and accurate assessment of employee’s performance. The evaluation of employee’s performance is the main factor for the manager to control his workers performance and an approach to motivate and inspire them. At a next steps in the evaluation process, can providing the ensures and right approach to manner and reform of employee performance and in the necessary conditions must with the interview and meeting identify their problems and issues to impalement corrective action for develop and improve the human resources work in the organization. The lack of real evaluation and assessment tools in organizations is one of the significant points that have been discussed in this article.


Assessment and Evaluation-Employees Challenges In Organization-Employee Performance-Performance Evaluation

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i2/2614
Impact of Parents’ Occupation on Students Self-Concept at Secondary Level
Author(s): Satar Khan, Muhammad Ayaz, S.R. Ghazi, Irfan Ullah Khan, Nasir Khan      Pages: [46-53]

This study examines the impact of parents’ occupation on the self-concept of 10th grade public school students. The objectives of this study were (a) to find out the level of education of parents in the six southern districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, (b) to find out the level of self-concept of students in the six southern districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and (c) to determine whether the occupation of parents has any impact on the self-concept of students. The data were collected from a sample (N =400) of 10th grade students in the urban and rural secondary public schools. A partially adapted questionnaire was used for measuring the parents’ level of education and the students’ self-concept. The data collected were analyzed through SPSS 20. Regression and ? (coefficient of impact) were used as statistical techniques. The findings of the study revealed that parents’ occupation had a consistent and positive impact on students’ self-concept.


Parents’ Occupation, Self-Concept, Academic Competence

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i2/2615
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Disclosure in Plantation & Consumer Products’ Industry in Pakistan
Author(s): Umair Tufail, Sara Kamran, Naveed Ahmad, Sohail Anwar      Pages: [54-63]

The paper enlightens the importance of the disclosure about CSR in Pakistan. Objectives of this study are dual and focus on the Plantation & Consumer Product’s industry in Pakistan. First objective of the study: to inspect the extent of CSR disclosure. Second objective of the study: to affirm that whether profitability, size of the firm and leverage have a relationship with the disclosure level of CSR. In data collection procedure, annual reports of the one hundred thirty eight firms of consumer product’s industries and forty eight Plantation companies listed in Pakistan are used. Content Analysis and Pearson chi-square techniques are used for data analysis. The results of current paper were not important for the consideration of higher management to improve the degree of the disclosure of CSR in Plantation & Consumer Products’ industry but also in the high interest of the companies to improve their CSR disclosure.


CSR, Environmental information, Leverage, Plantation & Consumer Product industry, Size of Firm

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i2/2616

This study aims to explore the relationship between retention strategies and employee turnover. In addition to that, the effectiveness of these strategies to enhance organizational commitment of employees working in the hospitality sector (fast-food chain) of Karachi, Pakistan. The study considered five decades of managerial literature to explain the relationship between variables. Semi-structured matrix based survey questionnaire and open-ended unstructured interview questions as research instruments to investigate the relationship. The research philosophy has been interpretive and deductive research is used. The sample size in this study is 426 participants in survey and 34 interviews with the management from the entire chain of fast-food restaurants in different regions of Karachi. The sampling technique is non-probability "convenience sampling". The findings revealed that high employee turnover is due to part time employment and high number of temporary employees or drop out from college and universities. Moreover, there is a relationship between employee turnover and organizational commitment. The higher job satisfactions leads to increase employees' commitment. It is recommended to the management of restaurant that friendly environment and training workshops are essential to retain good quality employees. The paper contributes to enhance the body of knowledge regarding job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and employee turnover. Moreover, the paper contributes to the managerial literature regarding the variables of interest from developing country's context, specifically hospitality industry. The previous studies were mainly conducted in developed countries while it has considered developing country to explore the variation among research variables.


Organizational Commitment; Job Satisfaction; Employee Turnover; Hospitality sector; Developing Economies.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i2/2619
Situation Analysis of Child Labor in Commercial Areas of Islamabad City
Author(s): Irfan Nawaz, Alia Shaheen      Pages: [79-98]

The purpose of study was to conduct a situation analysis of child labor in commercial areas of Islamabad city. For that purpose, data was collected using purposive sampling. Fourteen case studies were taken from different areas of Islamabad. On the basis of obtained information, it was found that child labor is an outcome of various reasons. Most dominant reasons were poverty, migration, lack of interest in education, and absence of adult in a family. Alarmingly, children who involved in child labor are exposed to various hazards. Exposure to hazards threatened their physical as well as psychological health. Additionally, abuse was also common among child laborers. Children were abused by various means like slap, hit by objects, snap and bullying. In line with the above facts, it is need of the hour to restore these children as healthy and productive unit of society.


Situation Analysis

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i2/2620
Brewing the Perfect Story: Rearticulating the Rhetoric in Sri Lankan Tea Tale
Author(s): Poornika Gunewardena      Pages: [99-114]

This paper analyses Sri Lankan tea industry in context to organizational storytelling. It focuses on the organizational narrative, conveyed through advertisements, annual reports and product packaging. While this story is easily accessible to society, there exists another set of ‘unheard’ stories arising from the workers of estates who supply tea to the island’s tea auction. These marginalized voices hoard vital stories necessary for the creation of a comprehensive industrial narration to society. The study encompassed a qualitative research methodology incorporating the method of ‘story- deconstruction’, which enabled the creation of a ‘restory’. Devoid of any form of dualities and hierarchies, the ‘restory’ avoided the centering on the rather ‘optimistic’ narration of Titanarum1 or the ‘pessimistic’ story as put forth by the tea pickers. Aforesaid decentering facilitated the re-articulation of marginalized female worker story as a part of a collective narration instead of a story told in isolation.


Story- Deconstruction, Marginalization, Restory, Decentering, Duality

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i2/2621
Banking Services and Moderating Role of Customers Characteristics (Length, Depth & Breadth)
Author(s): Zahra Idrees, Xia Xinping      Pages: [115-125]

In order to extend the literature on customer switching behavior the main objective of researches is to analyze the differences among customers in their propensity to switch service providers. For this purpose, different researchers study the impact of the differences in customer relationship characteristics (length, depth and breadth) on the probability to switch suppliers. Based on evidence from marketing and social literature, the length, depth and breadth of customer-firm relationships are expected to strongly influence customers’ switching decisions, helping us to explain the differences between switchers and stayers. . Respondents would be the users of a bank. Sample size of this research study is 500. The positivist research philosophy approached is used as the structured questioner was developed and distributed for the data collection. Personal administrated questionnaire was distributed and collect the questionnaire from them. There is a moderating effect on the relationship of overall service quality and customer retention by the relationship characteristics length, depth and breadth are accepted. This result is in line with the previous researches which indicate that as the customer starts to deepen in the relationship with company it tends to keep on using the services for the longer period of time. Pakistani Banks users which are using the service of any specific service provider, as reflected by these results, confirm that when a user is spending a large sum of money on the services of the company is expected to linger on with that company for a period of time unless there are some serious service issues from the company.


Relationship Characteristics, Customer Length, Customer depth, Customer Breadth.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i2/2622

Interventions on Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immune-Deficiency Syndrome (HIV and AIDS) face major challenges of resource constraints, relevance, efficiency and because of inadequate environmental scanning during strategic planning processes at global, regional, national, and county levels. The purpose of this study is to assess the influence of environmental scanning on performance of HIV and AIDS interventions managed by non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in Nyanza Region and the moderating influence of stakeholder participation in such relationship. The study adopted ex-post facto survey design in a mixed method approach. The sampling frame comprised 54 departmental heads as well as 6 managers/directors from three NGO National coordinating bodies. Purposive sampling techniques was used to pick the respondents. Self-administered questionnaires and Key informant interview guides were used to collect data. It was established that there was a significant weak positive relationship between environmental scanning and the performance of HIV and AIDS interventions, r (50)=0.117,p= 0.418,CL=95%. Stakeholder participation significantly moderated the relationship between environmental scanning and performance of HIV and AIDS interventions, r (50)=0.024,p=0.033,CL=95%. It is inferred that most organization conducted environmental scanning but did not realize optimal outcomes. Environmental scanning and stakeholder participation added value to HIV and AIDS interventions, though to a small extent. It is recommended that NGOs managing HIV and AIDS interventions should re-examine their environmental scanning processes for effectiveness. The NGOs also need strengthen stakeholder participation in the environmental scanning processes.


Strategic Planning, Environmental Scanning, Performance, HIV and AIDS interventions.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i2/2628

New human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and HIV prevalence is still a problem in Nyanza Region, Kenya. Part of the reason for this is failure of Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to craft robust organizational purpose that can drive positive outcomes. The purpose of the study was to examine the influence of organization’s purpose on performance of HIV and Acquired Immune-Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) interventions managed by NGOs in Nyanza Region and the moderating influence of stakeholder participation on such relationship. The study adopted ex-post facto survey design. The study population encompassed 60 departmental heads at NGO level as well as six directors from three NGO national coordinating bodies in Kenya. The study applied purposive sampling techniques to pick the respondents for the study. The data collection instruments for the study comprised: self-administered questionnaires and Key informant interview guides. It was found out that there was a significant weak positive relationship between organization’s purpose and the performance of HIV and AIDS interventions, r (50) =0.094, p= 0.008,CL=95%. Stakeholder participation significantly moderated the relationship between organization’s purpose and performance of HIV and AIDS interventions managed by NGOs in Nyanza Region, critical value was= 3.84 and the X2(1) value =5.030, 3.84 < 5.030.The study concluded crafting organization’s purpose in most organisation’s was not effective. Stakeholder participation was also not optimal. It is recommended that NGOs implementing HIV and AIDS interventions need to relook into the process of coming up with the vision, mission and core values and stakeholder participation in crafting organisation’s purpose.


Strategic planning, Organization’s purpose, Stakeholder Participation, Performance of HIV and AIDS interventions.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i2/2629
Islamic Banking and its Perspectives
Author(s): Sasho Kozuharov, Jana Ilieva, Natasha Ristovska      Pages: [167-177]

In the recent years, the global banking system has experienced large aftershocks. The global economic crisis that began in 2008, and its consequences, succeeded to close down many large banking systems. On the other hand, Islamic banks made a great growth, and their bank assets according to estimates, are worth about 1,800 billion. The secret is not in the big oil reserves, but the system which they called "halal financing". This system is based on several basic premises, which are not of a great philosophy, but are not in compliance with the western system of financial manipulation. The prohibition of interest-based finance through the banking sector, spread the growing economic impact in the contemporary economic, social, political and globalisation area. The relevance of this study is contributing to the debate which concerns the possible relevance of Islamic Banking to the potential development and redefinition of conventional banking. Through analysing the pros and cons of this financial system based on the Islamic principles, it will be determined if it is able to play a leading role in revamping and driving the conventional banking.


Islam, Islamic Financial System, Income Distribution, Credit Arrangement

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i2/2630
Influence of Technology Capability on Competitive Advantage of Sugar Companies in Western Kenya
Author(s): Engineer Richard M. Imbambi, Margaret Oloko, Charles M. Rambo      Pages: [178-192]

The Kenya sugar industry operate at an average capacity utilization of 50-60% due to technical limitations which make them uncompetitive in the COMESA region putting at stake 25% of the population that depends on the industry. The objective of the study was to determine the influence of technology capability on competitive advantage of sugar companies in Western Kenya and the hypothesis was that there is no significant relationship between technology capability and competitive advantage in sugar companies in Western Kenya. Descriptive and correlational research design was used. The target population was 727 senior and middle level managers. A sample of 88 respondents was used in the study. Pilot testing of the questionnaire for validity and reliability was done using 10% of the 88 respondents giving 9 participants. Secondary data was obtained from KSB Year Book of Sugar Statistics and AFFA Year Book of Sugar Statistics reports. Out of 88 questionnaires sent out, 64 were received giving a response rate of 73%. Correlation (r=0.289, p=0.050, CL=95%) and hypothesis (X2 critical value 3.84< X2 test statistics 5.343) analyses established a positive relationship between technology capability and competitive advantage. The conclusion drawn from the study findings is that The companies under study have technology capability limitations. The study recommends that each firm pays more attention to proper technology capability management. Further research should be carried out on the factors influencing factory capacity utilization of the sugar industry in Kenya.


Technology capability, Competitive Advantage, Factory Capacity Utilization, Factory Time Efficiency

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i2/2631
Influence of Material Capability on Competitive Advantage of Sugar Companies in Western Kenya
Author(s): Engineer Richard M. Imbambi, Margaret Oloko, Charles M. Rambo      Pages: [193-204]

There is great interest by the manufacturing firms in material capability due to the multiplier benefits arising out of effective and efficient material management. The Resource based view theory states that the resources possessed by a firm are the primary determinants of its performance and Porter’s diamond theory suggests that the national material base of an organization plays an important role in shaping the extent to which it is likely to achieve advantage on a global scale. Out of 88 questionnaires sent out, 64 usable questionnaires were received giving a response rate of 73%. Descriptive statistics was used to test the objectives, chi- square test were used to test the hypotheses and correlation analysis was used to determine the direction and magnitude of the relationship between material capability and competitive advantage. The findings are that the material capability influences competitive advantage of sugar companies in Western Kenya. From the study it can be concluded that companies under study have material capability limitations resulting in a vicious circle of sugarcane glut and scarcity. The study recommends that for manufacturing firms to experience remarkable success in their performance, priority must be given to Materials Management as a total concept. Further research should be carried out on the factors influencing the sugarcane capability in the sugar industry in Kenya.


Materials capability, Competitive Advantage

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i2/2632
Quality of Banking Services & Customer Retention: Moderated by Relationship Characteristics
Author(s): Zahra Idrees, Xia Xinping      Pages: [205-217]

A variety of factors have been identified as potentially increasing or improving customer retention rates. But this research study examined to analyze the moderating impact of overall customer’s relationship characteristics between the service quality and customer retention in collective. Respondents would be the users of a bank. Sample size of this research study is 500. The positivist research philosophy approached is used as the structured questioner was developed and distributed for the data collection. Personal administrated questionnaire was distributed and collect the questionnaire from them. Customer relationship characteristics have a moderating role on the relationship of service quality (overall) provided by the banks on the customer retention cannot be rejected. , relationship characteristic emerges as an important element towards the customer retention, which means that the managers would have to be more careful in the dealing of the customers which are using the service provider’s product from a long time, or in more frequency & usage and are using the several products of the same service providers.


Service Quality, Customer Relationship Characteristics, Customer Retention

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i2/2633
Effectiveness and Challenges of Recruitment process outsourcing (RPO) in the Indian Hotel Sector
Author(s): Vipin Nadda, Zaman Rafiq, Pankaj Tyagi      Pages: [218-236]

The present study tries of evaluate the effectiveness and challenges faced by adopting RPO practice in the India Hotel sector. The research objectives are driven from the purpose of the research which deals with distinct issues related to RPO and various perspectives of utilizing RPO. These objectives guided in identifying factors influencing the rationale for outsourcing the recruitment processes. The need for RPO has gained significance with the impact of organizational structure, stringent project deadlines, insufficient time for internal HR department for recruiting personnel, inefficiencies in integrating all stages of recruitment and expansion of geographies. The study is developed on building a theoretical framework which is prepared through analysing previous literature about outsourcing, and their utilization and efficiency in organizations. Mixed method approach has been followed to analyse with better validity and exploration of the context related to the effectiveness of RPO in the Indian hotel sector. The key findings indicated that the culture was positive influence on the usage of RPO in the organizations, in terms of adopting RPO during expansion of geographies and globalization. Also, the organizational structure was the major challenge in adopting these practices along with monitoring the outsourcing activities, lack of communication and inefficient HR practices.


Recruitment process outsourcing (RPO); Hotel industry; Organizational Structure, Recruitment effectiveness, safety and security.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i2/2635

The qualitative paper investigates the impact of organisational culture on the job satisfaction of employees working in the small and medium size I.T firms operating in the south of India. The paper undertakes the application of Denison’s model for exploring the organisational culture and Spector JSS survey to examine employees' job satisfaction through 5 points Likert Scale. This exploratory study targeted 400 employees in the 30 different organisations however 280 participated in this study. For data analysis mainly MS Excel Integrated package was used for the purpose of labelling, coding, and percentages. The results indicates that organisational culture has a significant positive impact on the employees' job satisfaction. It drives them in determining organisational goals as well strengthen strategic direction to the organisation. Additionally, learning culture enhance employees' commitment and career growth chances. However, it is evident that females have higher job satisfaction in contrast to males. Despite, there is high level of satisfaction evident but it is also found that reward and promotion increase job satisfaction among lower level staff while organisational culture has direct relationship with stress.


Organisational culture; Job Satisfaction; Career Growth; Monetary Rewards; Occupational Stress

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i2/2636
Measuring Organizational Commitment and Occupational Stress of Pakistani Doctors: Comparing Lahore and Karachi Public Hospitals in Gender Perspective
Author(s): Syeda Zufiesha Zehra, Beenish Zehra, Fakhr-un- Nisa, Syed Zain Ali, Syeda Hira Zehra, Marium Ather      Pages: [247-255]

The purpose of the study is to investigate the disparity in cause and consequences of stress among male and female genders in private hospitals. The self-constructed stress model is used to evaluate the pertinent effect of stressors on organizational commitment. 219 respondents took part in the study from which 114 participants were from Lahore and 105 from Karachi through convince sampling technique. Semi-constructed survey based online matrix is used to achieve quantitative aspect. According to results evaluated causes of stress among male and female varies. In addition, females are under less stress than males at operational level. Moreover, due to social support programmes, employees working in Lahore hospitals are under less stress in comparison to Karachi hospitals. As indicated in the results interpreted, causes of stress varies among 2 contrasting gender. Females are under more stress due to personal factor whereas in male organizational and environmental factor is a chief cause for stress. Organizational commitment for females is affected by family problems and personality clashes while in males it is Job demand, leadership, and economic uncertainty that is affecting organizational commitment. In male and female workforce, consequence of stress doesn’t vary. Nevertheless, to overcome stress, females utilize personal resources in a very effective fashion and display behavioral symptoms while men displays cognitive behavior. Normative commitment is more prevalent among males as compare to opposing gender whereas in females affective commitment and continuance commitment is high. In addition, Lahore workforces are under low stress than the Karachi workforce.


Occupational Stress; Personal stressors; Organizational Commitment; Comparative Analysis; Organizational Stressors; Hospital Sector

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i2/2637
Marketing Communications Process on the Pharmaceutical Market in Ghana
Author(s): Owusu Alfred      Pages: [256-273]

The issue of marketing communications is currently generating growing interest among researchers and entities operating on the pharmaceutical market in Ghana. The unique nature of pharmaceutical products , i.e. a medicine that supports or saves human lives, the system of co-financing pharmaceutical production by the state and other entities in the distribution channels, legal restrictions on promotional activities, expectations of end buyers (i.e. patients) on that market, as well as the general considerations related to the globalization process and the emergence of new communications technologies has influence on the communications processes observed in the pharmaceutical sector in Ghana . The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the impact of the pharmaceutical market’s unique nature on the communication processes and related tools, taking into account the latest trends, as well as to point out the need for an integrated approach towards communication process management. This paper argues that marketing communications on the pharmaceutical market in Ghana should be integrated at three levels: promotional tools, marketing mix components (pharmaceutical product, price and distribution methods) and the overall company strategy.


Pharmaceutical Market, E-Pharmamarketing, Marketing Communications, Integration of Marketing Communications, Pharmaceutical Market.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i2/2638

Being a principal component of consumption decisions, fashion has social and cultural importance for people. Women, who are the most powerful consumers in the world, make up the largest and fastest-growing market and are an interesting group of consumers to marketers. Previous studies suggest that self-monitoring and materialism are influential on fashion clothing involvement of women. Female consumers involved in fashion are considered to drive the fashion adoption process. This study was conducted by administering a questionnaire to non-working female consumers interested in fashion. Research data were obtained via face-to-face survey. While self-monitoring and materialism were taken as antecedents, fashion clothing involvement was taken as the outcome of the research model. The results point to a significant positive effect of materialism and self-monitoring on fashion involvement. They also show that there is a positive relationship between self-monitoring and materialism.


Materialism, Self-monitoring, Fashion Product Involvement, Fashion Product Purchase Involvement

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i2/2639
Climate Change Adaptation Ability among Sabahan Highland Farmers
Author(s): Hamizah Sahharon, Khairuddin Idris, Asnarulkhadi Abu Samah, Bahaman Abu Samah , Hayrol Azril Mohamed Shaffril      Pages: [295-307]

This study aims to gain more understanding of Sabahan highland farmers’ capacity to adapt to the impacts of climate change. This study uses a multi-stage cluster sampling involving 200 highland farmers around Kundasang and Moyog. The data were the analysed using independent t-test, ANOVA, and Pearson correlation. Sabahan highland farmers have a high cognitive awareness towards the changes in their ecosystem, high practices by diversifying their crops, extending their harvest land and also learn other skills related to agriculture and skills impertinent to agriculture to convalesce their household income. However, their structure support was weak as they do not have many livelihood options other than agriculture.


Climate Change, Higland Farmers, Adaptation Ability, Community Development

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i2/2640
Developing an Instrument to Measure Malaysian Highland Farmers’ Adaptation towards Climate Change
Author(s): Khairuddin Idris, Asnarulkhadi Abu Samah, Bahaman Abu Samah, Hamizah Sahharon, Hayrol Azril Mohamed Shaffril      Pages: [308-314]

This paper aims to explicate the instrument development process for measuring Malaysian highland farmers’ adaptation towards climate change. The process consisted five phases, namely understanding the background of study, comprehensive review of literature; detailed review of each item; establishing the reliability of instrument and strengthening the instrument. Based on the reliability analysis and validity procedures by the research team, several modifications were made. The finalized instrument contains a total of five sections, namely demographic (18 items), cognitive (12 items), practices (seven items), structure (nine items) and cost (15 items). Towards the end, the researchers planned to use the developed instrument to conduct a related study at three main highland farming areas in Malaysia namely Lojing, Cameron Highland and Kundasang.


Instrument Development, Reliability, Validity, Community Development

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i2/2641
The Coastal Community Views on the Environmental Changes
Author(s): Khairuddin Idris, Asnarulkhadi Abu Samah, Turiman Suandi, Bahaman Abu Samah, Mahazan Muhammad , Hayrol Azril, Mohamed Shaffril      Pages: [315-329]

This study aims to explore coastal community views on the environmental changes. Their views are covering four aspects, their awareness, the causes, the impacts and things they have done to absorb the impacts. The data were gained via three FGDs conducted with the coastal community at Kuala Besut, Tanjung Piai and Lumut. Based on the FGDs, it can be concluded the coastal community is aware of the changes and they claimed these changes are mainly caused by two sources – the human and the natural factors. The changes are predominantly impacting them in negative ways and require them to have some initiatives to apprehend the impacts. A number of recommendations are highlighted and hopefully, it can guide the concern parties in constructing related strategies that can assist the coastal community in lessening the impacts of the environmental changes.


Coastal Community, Environmental Management, Community Development

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i2/2642
Inclusive Leadership, Safety Climate and Safety Behaviour: A Proposed Framework
Author(s): Bara Kabaka Brown, Chandrakantan Subramaniam, Hassan Ali      Pages: [330-342]

The purpose of this paper is to propose a framework for understanding inclusive leadership as an antecedent of the safety climate – safety behaviour relationship. Though the relationship between safety climate and safety behaviour is well-established in the safety management literature, studies on the antecedents of safety climate are few. More so, while a few studies have examined leadership as an antecedent of safety climate, none has examined inclusive leadership in relation to safety climate and by extension, safety behaviour. Of note also is that no study has examined the direct relationship between inclusive leadership and safety behaviour. Hence, this paper discusses inclusive leadership as an antecedent of the safety climate-safety behaviour relationship. A conceptual model backed by the Social Exchange Theory is thus proposed for future empirical endeavours and for expanding the leadership and safety management literature.


Inclusive leadership, Safety climate, Safety behaviour

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i2/2643

Manufacturing companies in Kenya have been experiencing problems in the performance of their production and operations management. One strategy of improving their performance is resorting to logistics outsourcing. Outsourcing of non-core activities to Third Party Logistics providers (3PL) is one of the ways of ensuring efficient and effective performance of companies. This study therefore, sought to establish the influence of cost on the performance of food and beverages manufacturing companies in Kenya. The study adopted cross-sectional survey design using both quantitative and qualitative approaches. The target population of this study was 197 registered food and beverages manufacturing companies in Kenya as per Kenya Association of Manufacturers (KAM) Directory 2015. Data was collected using a questionnaire. Descriptive statistics was used aided by Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 24 to compute percentages of respondents’ answers. Inferential statistics using linear regression and correlation analysis was applied in examining relationship between the research variables. The study found out that cost was significant predictors in the performance of food and beverages manufacturing companies in Kenya. The study found out that cost of transportation and distribution costs, customs clearance, document processing, freight forwarding, tracking and tracing affected performance of food and beverages manufacturing companies in Kenya. The study recommended that it would be appropriate for management to consider cost as criteria of outsourcing 3PL providers in improving performance of food and beverages manufacturing companies in Kenya.


Third Party Logistics Providers, Lead-Time, Manufacturing Companies

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i2/2644
Factor Affecting the Transfer of Training at the Workplace: Case study of SSGC Ltd, Pakistan
Author(s): Qurat-Ul-Ain Qureshi, Arabella Bhutto, Raza Ali Tunio      Pages: [357-370]

This study focuses on influence of work environment feasible for the transfer of training. . Both researchers and practitioners have acknowledged that transfer of training will only occur when trainees have positive perception of the work environment. Thus the purpose of this research is to investigate the influence of work environmental factors on the extent to which employees are satisfied with their work environment and are motivated to the training transfer particularly in the SSGC. The present study was carried out within the environmental framework of Sui Southern Gas Company of Hyderabad region and data was collected through survey. The results indicate that company believes on training and development and frequently sent their employees for training by given them time off from their routine work. Also, Employees received adequate support from the management. The study results showed that irrelevant workload on employees need to be reduced as it influences the effective transfer and evaluation criterion for the trained skills should be reviewed by the company.


Training, Training Transfer, Environmental factors, Evaluation, SSGC

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i2/2645
Status of Harassment and Discrimination in Jamshoro Education City, Pakistan
Author(s): Khalida Khan, Arabella Bhutto, Paras Rani Mahar      Pages: [371-385]

This research focuses on identifying status of harassment and discrimination at higher education institutions (HEIs) in Jamshoro Education City (JEC). The constitution and government of Pakistan approved some acts and policies to give equal rights to both genders at work place and it is required to make these policies part of organizational management. However, whether HEIs in JEC has made it a part of their management and whether do they really need to make it a part of management is explored in this paper. The data is collected through close ended questionnaires along with some interviews. Results reveal that harassment and discrimination exist in HEIs in JEC but the level of occurrences is low. The mostly occurred discriminations identified are organizational politics and distributions of benefits. It was also identified that majority of females do not know about the existing acts and policies given by government of Pakistan to control harassment in working environment and there is no enforcement to implement these policies in JEC. The correlation test identified a positive relationship between awareness level and implementation of these acts and policies and a negative relationship was identified between these factors and occurrence of harassment and discrimination in JEC. It concludes that if management will implement these policies the harassment and discrimination in HEIs in JEC will further reduce.


Harassment and Discrimination Types, Acts And Policies, Awareness Level, Jamshoro Education City, Higher Education Institutions.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i2/2646