International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences

Volumn 7, Issue 3 (March, 2017)

Abstract

The purpose of the study is to examine moderating role of emotional intelligence on the relationship of perceived soft skills and employability in the business graduates of Malaysia. Study is descriptive and quantitative in nature. The data were collected from 380 students of four different universities (USM, UITM, UUM, UM) of Malaysia. CFA and SEM techniques have been applied to check the validity and hypotheses testing. The results divulged that different types of skills are significantly and positively associated with employability. Moreover, findings also proved that students level of emotional intelligence significantly moderate on the relationship of perceived soft skills and employability. This study gives insight understanding regarding the crucial role of skills and emotional intelligence to positively shape the employability.

Keywords

Perceived soft skills, Emotional Intelligence, Employability

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2688
Profiling GPS Users among Small Scale Fishermen in Malaysia
Author(s): Hayrol Azril Mohamed Shaffril, Azimi Hamzah, Bahaman Abu Samah      Pages: [23-32]
Abstract

This study aims to profile the GPS users among small scale fishermen in Malaysia. The study is quantitative in nature whereby a total of 400 respondents from 12 fisheries districts were involved. The analysis have confirmed that older fishermen with PMR/SRP level of education formed the majority of GPS users. On average, the fishermen surveyed had about 19 years of experience in fishing activities and they have utilised the GPS for 5 years. Their level of GPS usage was high and in general, most of them has been relying on this technology for two main purposes – navigation and safety. The findings from this study can assist the concerned parties in understanding the background of GPS users and their pattern of usage, which later allows them to strategize several efforts to encourage GPS usage among non-users through future programs that are in line with their needs, abilities and interests.

Keywords

Fisheries Technology Usage, Community Development, Rural Development

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2689
Abstract

Kurdistan Region of Iraq today is facing incalculable challenges as a result of high unemployment rate. Unemployment has risen sharply over the last two years as 20 – 25 per cent had lost their jobs mainly in the private sector. For example, unemployment in 2013 stood at 7 per cent and in 2014, it grew to 10 per cent (BasNews, 2015) and the trends suggest a steady increase in the years ahead. This paper discusses the interconnectedness between entrepreneurial activities and employment creation in Kurdistan. The paper also examines the extent in which crises free environment can facilitate a strategy for employment opportunities within the Region under investigation using some specific organizations as Mini Case Study. The motivation for conducting research in this area is to provide some solutions on how the rising unemployment trend in Kurdistan Region of Iraq can be ameliorated.

Keywords

Entrepreneurship, Unemployment, Entrepreneurial activities, Entrepreneurs, employment.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2690
Influence of HRM Practices on Project Performance: Conceptual Framework
Author(s): Muneer Mohamed Imhmed Abuazoom, Hanizun Bin Hanafi, Zul Zakiyuddin Bin Ahmad      Pages: [47-54]
Abstract

The main purpose of this paper is to conceptualize the importance of human resource management (HRM) practices towards project performance in the construction industry of Libya. HRM have been considered as the main source of sustainable competitive edge for the organization. It helps to create the workforce contribution, however there have not been extensive studies to fairly bleak the picture of employment practices and industrial relations specifically in the construction sector of Libya. The extensive literature having established the HRM-performance relationship, what is lacking is empirical research examining the mechanisms through which the relationships works. After reviewing the extant literature on HRM and performance, different conceptualisation have emerged. Perhaps the most important with regards to HRM practices is the concept of implementation reflecting to see the organisation succeed in its goals and feelings to being part of the organisation. This research will significantly contribute to provide new promising HRM framework that will tend to improve project performance in the construction industry.

Keywords

HRM Practices

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2691
Abstract

Despite the important role played by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in poverty reduction, economic development, job creation and innovation for both developing and developed countries, still there are serious impediments limiting the availability of affordable and timely finances to support the startup SMEs. There has been very little research exploring the impediments particularly related to external financing of the SMEs. . This study conducted in Tanzania in 2014 explores the barriers encountering startup SMEs in Morogoro Municipality to use external source of capital as their main source of capital at the initial stage of their businesses. The findings indicate that the requirements imposed by financiers such as banks and SACCOS to starting business are the main barriers to startup business to use external capital. In addition other factors include the lack of Collateral, information asymmetry, business plan and business registration were rated to be main barriers to startup businesses to use external sources of capital. It is suggested that , the government and other stakeholders including lenders need to make some innervations so as to mitigate the problem of failing to utilize external sources of capital.

Keywords

Collateral, Information Asymmetry, Business Plan, Startup SMEs

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2692
Abstract

Transformational leadership theory has acquired the interest of many researchers in the discipline of organisational leadership since the last three decades. The main foundation of the transformational leadership theory is the leader’s aptitude to stimulate the follower to accomplish more than what the follower planned to accomplish. This study will focus on the main components of transformational leadership namely, idealised influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualised consideration. However, for this study, Islamic perspective was added to this research. This addition is mainly because in light of new literature on leadership in Islam, it was found that most of the teachings of Islam embodies many of the concepts of modern leadership theories which are transformational in nature. A number of studies have investigated the effect of transformational leadership on the performance of organisation. However, there is an extensive gap in the research literature regarding the processes through which a transformational leader applies this impact to change his followers to be the best performer that are extremely dedicated to the organisation hence this study will be based on the issue stated above. The qualitative phenomenological case study methodology was chosen based on the objective of conducting this particular research study. The purpose of this study was to explore the process actualised by transformational leaders which will eventually lead to the effectiveness of transformational leadership in accomplishing to support a high-performance workforce that will exceeds the organisational expectations. The data collection was obtained from ENI Gas Company in Libya. The target audience for this study was nine (9) respondents. The findings showed different practices of transformational leadership by the leader of ENI Gas Company in the usage of the four I’s and Islamic perspective. In this regard, from the respondents feedback, it was discovered that the leader practiced the characteristics and behaviour, moral standard and leadership style in idealised influence; demonstrating commitment, future envisioning and risk management for inspirational motivation; innovative and creative and motivation for intellectual stimulation; coach and mentor and communication for individualised consideration; good example of Muslim leader, Islamic tools and ethics life principles for the Islamic perspectives.

Keywords

Transformational Leadership, The Process Of Transformational Leadership, Organisational Performance, Performance Beyond Expectations, Libya.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2695
Blue Ocean Leadership (BOL) Practices towards Promoting Employee Engagement in Public Service
Author(s): Zaki Zakaria, Madya Dr Khairudin Idris, Mohd Bakhari Ismail      Pages: [85-98]
Abstract

Malaysia has bold intention to be an advanced nation in 2020. Here, public service holds the key as they are the primary facilitator in achieving this noble dream. It required fully engaged public service workforce as achieving Vision 2020 is an ardours task. Getting employees’ engagement is within reach with the introduction of Blue Ocean Leadership that provides a totally new approach as employees views are taken into consideration in developing new leadership profile. What makes it more interesting, it can be implemented at any time, low cost and able to provide high impact result. The issue of employee engagement needs special attention as the current situation portrays a shocking truth where only 13% of employees worldwide are engaged. In Malaysia, the rate is even worse as there are only 11% employees engaged in their jobs. Hence, employee engagement is critical issue that need to be addressed urgently in public service. As such, Blue Ocean Leadership is offering new framework and tools for leaders in public service with the aim of increasing level of employee engagement. Finally, this new leadership profile is shown on leadership canvas and shared among employees that aim to motivate them to strive for organizational excellence.

Keywords

Blue Ocean Leadership, Employee Engagement, Leadership, Vision 2020 And Public Service

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2696
Abstract

Livestock keeping represent vast majority of household wealth and accounts for more than two-thirds of average family income in arid and semi-arid lands of Kenya. In the last decade, four severed droughts occurred in Northern Kenya resulting to major livestock mortality. Following to this, several projects were embarked to manage risk such as provision of micro-insurance for low income people but not much has been achieved. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the moderating effect of index based livestock insurance on socio-cultural factors affecting performance of livestock projects in North Eastern Kenya. The study used cross sectional design and targeted population from households in Garissa and Wajir. Structured questionnaire was administered to the sampled population which was randomly selected using multi-stage random sampling technique. Quantitative data collected was analyzed by statistical models such as Analysis of variance (ANOVA), Multivariate regression analysis was applied to measure moderating effect of index based livestock insurance on socio-cultural factors. The study found out that there was a weak positive linear relationship between socio-cultural factors and performance of livestock projects in North Eastern Kenya using Pearson correlation coefficient. However, introduction of moderating variable into independent variable (socio-cultural factors) there was insignificant relationship with performance of livestock projects in North Eastern Kenya North Eastern Kenya.The study recommends to the project managers to be cognisant that group norms would affect the individual’s behavior patterns and therefore they should ensure that religion, culture, norms and values are factored before any project takes off.

Keywords

Index based Livestock Insurance, Performance of Livestock Projects, Socio-Cultural

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2697
Abstract

Purpose: The present research attempts to explore the relationship between work-life balance, social support and burnout whether work-life balance and social support might predict burnout. Approach and Methodology: Research data have been collected in five sectors via online survey which is conducted with three 5 points Likert type scales. Multiple regression analysis is applied to obtain predictors of burnout and in order to determine the differences between groups regarding socio-demographic factors, ANOVA analysis is performed via SPSS 20.0 software program. Findings and Results: According to the findings of the research; it could be briefly said that dimensions of work-life balance and social support are predictors of dimensions of burnout. More precisely; emotional support, neglecting life, life is just working and taking time for oneself dimensions are the predictors of depersonalization. Neglecting life, life is just working, work-life accordance, taking time for oneself and carrying work to home dimensions are the predictors of emotional exhaustion. Informational and instrumental support, neglecting life, work-life accordance and taking time for oneself dimensions are the predictors of personal accomplishment. Neglecting life, work-life accordance and carrying work to home dimensions are the predictors of involvement with people. Contribution and Implications: The need for this research is the absence of any study which consists of work-life balance, social support and burnout together. Therefore, the research aims to fill this gap and seeks to offer a contribution to the extant literature with determining the predictors of burnout.

Keywords

Work-life Balance, Social Support, Burnout, Multiple Regression, ANOVA

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2699
The Effect of Higher Education quality on Economic Growth in Libya
Author(s): Ali Mahmoud Ali Alsanousi      Pages: [139-149]
Abstract

Purpose– The study tries to understand how the quality of higher education in higher education contributes to economic growth in Libya and studies the degree of association between these two variables. Design/methodology/approach– to measure the correlation between the quality of higher education and economic growth in Libya, the study used a quantitative approach and statistical analysis based on simple linear regression. The results of this approach determine the degree of association between the quality of higher education and economic growth. Findings– results it is concluded that higher education quality is the strongest factor that mediate the relationship between return to higher education and economic growth, also it has a high degree of contribution to economic growth in Libya Practical implications– The results of this study highlight the importance of higher education quality in higher education to the Libyan government so that the government should lower the quality of higher education in order to strengthen economic growth in Libya. Originality/value– Previous studies on consumer animosity did not investigate the effect of higher education quality in higher education on economic growth in Libya. This study contributes to the body of knowledge on linking higher education quality from higher education with economic growth and examines their qualifications and train them to be experienced and qualified higher education quality in the future, the results of this study help the government of Libya to raise economic growth in return.

Keywords

Higher Education Quality, Economic Growth, Higher Education.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2706
Critical Overview of Organizational Citizenship and Organizational Loyalty and Empiric Study for Two Concept
Author(s): Omer Okan FETTAHLIOGLU, Cansu BIRIN, Zahide AKDOGAN      Pages: [150-165]
Abstract

As country nationals who is a member of a country and that subject to the constitutional arrangements of the country, the people working within the organization, was accepted as a citizen of the business, they should benefit from all rights on an equal level. This line of thinking in the concept of organizational citizenship should be re-examined. The definitions referred to in the literature is lacking in our opinion, only on the basis of the voluntary and undertaking extra role, not fulfill these elements of organizational citizenship and a greater number of other employees which to include be redefined is a necessary condition for us. Based on this idea, whether the impact on organizational loyalty of organizational citizenship behavior were included in the study. In our study, employees' perceptions of organizational citizenship behavior has been investigated whether the effect on organizational loyalty. To test the hypothesis, survey was conducted with 283 people which working in a public institution in Bitlis. This survey were analyzed with SPSS. According to the findings, it was found that the positive and low strength relationship (.156 and .367 between value and p <0.01 level) between organizational citizenship behavior and organizational of loyalty. the organizational citizenship behavior on organizational loyalty has been concluded to be effective in the range of 13% 13 (R2:,135; ?:,329; p: 0,000) to 2.4%(R2:.024; ?:.123; p: 0.000).

Keywords

Organization, Organizational Citizenship, Organizational Loyalty

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2707
Impact of Demographic and Health Factors on GDP Growth of South Asian Countries
Author(s): Syed Emad Azhar Ali, Sara Khurram      Pages: [166-179]
Abstract

The changing aspects of world economic transformation has been attention-grabbing especially for last 10-20 years as this time duration has seen swift progress and development in economic, demographic and health factors. Among the developing countries, there has been a dramatic increase in South Asia’s GDP. GDP of South Asia has grown by 7% on average in the last decade. This GDP growth is further expected to grow by 8% by 2019 (World Bank).Particularly, significant increase in the GDP growth of the countries like India, Srilanka, Bangladesh and Pakistan is observed. This achievement in economic growth must be backed by the characteristics of the country’s nationals. Among such characteristics, one of the determinants of GDP growth is country’s demographic factors and the health of the nationals. Demographic factors play its role in the economic growth by molding the characteristics of the people in a country and therefore percentage of labor force participation. There has not been significant contribution in the literature on the impact of these demographic factors on South Asian GDP. This study has validated new indication supporting the impression that disparity in demographic features is a significant determinant of growth in the country’s economic growth. Using a panel dataset from 2002 to 2011 at the country-level in the South Asia, this study is conducted to analyze by incorporating factors related to demographic and health into a function of economic growth, this study has depicted that demographic changeover has played a significant role in South Asia’s development. It was statistically found that health expenditure and mortality has a significant positive association with the GDP growth. It is important to note that potential growth of South Asian economies is largely dependent on its skill formation capacity of its population, particularly working age population. Therefore, Government of a country should play a major role to strengthen its health sector which can contribute more effectively towards economic growth and development.

Keywords

GDP growth, life expectancy, mortality, fertility, health expenditure, South Asia

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2708
Abstract

The study aimed to establish factors contributing to low sanitation and hygiene coverage as well as determining the knowledge, attitudes and cultural practices of the community members on sanitation and hygiene. This study adopted a qualitative research paradigm with the descriptive research design being the preferred research design. Sustainable Livelihood Approach was used as a concept underpinning this study. The research findings revealed that, low sanitation and hygiene was due to poverty within the community. The community has a negative attitude towards sanitation and hygiene programmes, and inadequate resources reduce the number of households with sanitation facilities. The research therefore recommended that, the community be adequately educated through awareness programmes, be provided with enough resources so as to increase coverage in sanitation and hygiene and that programme implementers regularly supervise sanitation and hygiene programmes.

Keywords

Sanitation, Defecation, Blair Latrine, Hygiene, Community Mobilization

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2709
Abstract

The foundation of an organization is to combine the dynamism and knowledge of diverse people. Often such combinations may result in conflicts too. To take advantage of joint work requires con?ict management. In this paper, the central focus is on the conflict management and resolution in Saudi Arabia’s public and private sector. It is because Saudi Arabia is one of the countries that have immensely benefitted from globalization. Not only does it export oil, but also require a knowledgeable, skilled, and able workforce. In a country that 27% of the workforce is composed of the expatriates, it is important to identify and define the various factors that influence Human Resource Management practices. Management and resolution of conflicts is a functional area for the Human resource departments. The scope of conflict, as it were, includes those actions that hamper work relationships and interactions. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia presents an important context for this study. As such, there are three study areas for this paper. These include conflict management and resolution, Saudi Arabia, and Human Resource Management. Through the blending of concepts associated with the study areas, it is possible to define not only industrial relations but also the difference in approaches taken by the public and the private sector. Because of the composition of the workforce, and the inevitability of conflicts, it is important to identify the environmental issues, which render the conditions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia unique, and, for several reasons, a challenge to Human Resource Management professionals. Since conflicts at workplace are inevitable, Saudi Arabia’s unique political and social context provide a chance to define the conflict management and resolution approaches available for the public and private sector. Among other things, this paper resolves that the conflict management and resolution in the public sector is a rigid process.

Keywords

Conflict, Management, Multiculturalism, Workforce, Saudi Arabia

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2710
An Empirical Investigation of Causal Relationship of Chinese FDI to African Economies
Author(s): Diouf Modou, Liu Hai Yun      Pages: [199-207]
Abstract

Foreign direct investment (FDI) is frequently viewed as a fundamental component in any nation's given mission for economic development. There is slight uncertainty that the growth of Chinese trade and investment with developing and underdeveloped African states has furnished these countries with a supreme chance to rejuvenate their economies. This study reviewed driving factors of Chinese FDI to African economies utilizing a panel data from 1980- 2016. This study applied Granger causality test, under vector error correction modeling (VECM) to check causality among the factors. Whereas the determinants of FDI inflows were measured utilizing applying ECM and granger causality measurements as proposed by Anyanwu (2012), the dependent variable is FDI inflows to growth, was proxy by the proportion of FDI streams to total national output (GDP). Results showed that factors showing the determinants of FDI inflows have positive influence on development of West African and Monetary Unions economies.

Keywords

Chinas FDI, Granger Causality, West African and Monetary Unions economies

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2725
Stress Reduction through Innovative Training: Dancing with Stress
Author(s): Ioan-Vladut NUTU, Adina-Roxana MUNTEANU      Pages: [208-215]
Abstract

Occupational stress becomes more and more a problem in Romanian organizations. As high level of stress experienced by employees is reflected in reduced work productivity and absenteeism, just to mention the most important consequences. This article reviews the definition of organizational stress and proposes a method of stress mitigation: a training program to reduce stress through dance. Our survey of 120 participates that attended such a training showed that the overall level of stress decreases and the mindset regarding stress changes from negative to positive by the end of the training for the majority of the participants.

Keywords

Organizational Stress, Training, Dance, Positive Mindset, Negative Mindset

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2726
Emerging Challenges of HRM in 21st Century: A Theoretical Analysis
Author(s): Shuana Zafar Nasir      Pages: [216-223]
Abstract

Human Resource Management discipline extracted its roots from organizational psychology discipline and proved to be an important practice for managing organizations. The role of this practice has emerged to be strategic with due course of time. In an organization, HR has become an important strategic partner and the management of the same has become a challenging task for HR managers. Now a day, the role of human resource management departments has become indispensable for 21st century modern businesses. This article particularly focuses on changing role of human resource management practices in 21st century. This theoretical paper aims to highlight the importance of human resource managers, HR practices and its influencing factors. In addition to that, this article also elaborates the upcoming challenges which are being faced by 21st century HR managers. The literature analysis has been conducted to present emerging issues, challenges and practices of human resource management discipline in context of 21st century.

Keywords

Globalization, Strategic Partner, Competency Framework, Technological Advancement, Dynamic Environment, Change Management.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2727
Problems in Using the Wireless Village Services in Malaysia: The Non-Users Perspectives
Author(s): Hamizah Sahharon, Jusang Bolong, Siti Zobidah Omar      Pages: [224-234]
Abstract

This study aims to identify problems faced by rural community in Malaysia in using the wireless village services. The study is quantitative in nature and was conducted in four districts in Malaysia, namely Setiawan (Perak), Bahau (Negeri Sembilan), Marang (Terengganu) and Kundasang (Sabah). With a total of 300 respondents the study used a survey method to identify the problems faced by an ICT project called 1Malaysia Wireless Village. Analysis performed has confirmed on four main problems that were possibly affected the progress of rural development and digital equality towards economic development. A number of discussions have been highlighted and it is a hope that it can assist the concern parties in constructing the best ICT usage strategies particularly among the rural community.

Keywords

Rural Development, ICT Projects, ICT Project Sustainability, Internet Usage

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2728
Impact of Supervisor Support on Job Satisfaction: A Moderating role of Fairness Perception
Author(s): Muhammad Asif Qureshi, Kamal bin Ab Hamid      Pages: [235-242]
Abstract

Supervisor support plays a substantial role in increasing employee job satisfaction. The aims of this conceptual paper is to provide a theoretical rationale of: a) direct impact of supervisor support on job satisfaction; and b) the moderating role of fairness perception for the positive relationship between supervisor support and job satisfaction. It is argued that increasing competition in the global markets is pushing businesses to focus on ways through which they could help build a much stronger and more competitive workforce. This, principally can be achieved when the employees are happy and contented with their jobs. Job satisfaction has been empirically studied as a significant predictor for various organizational outcomes such as employee commitment, engagement, organizational citizenship behavior, information sharing, etc.

Keywords

Job satisfaction, Supervisor Support, Fairness Perception.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2729
Abstract

The choice of electoral system has a profound effect on the future political life of a country. From 1995-2015, Ethiopia has run five elections in which several multi-party politicians have participated. However, the Ethiopian Peoples’ Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) had been using its knowledge of the electoral systems to promote its own partisan advantage. Currently, the EPRDF controls 100 percent of the seats in the House of People's Representatives and has remained in power for the last two decades. Given that the existing system that has created a mono-party system, it is suggested that Ethiopia gives away to multi-party system that gives equal level field. In short, the policy implication of the study is that Ethiopia experiments, refines, and steadily improve its electoral system and give way to the proportional representation electoral system. Rather following the existing majoritarian system, implementing the proportional representation would make the electoral system in Ethiopia to be inclusive and allow the other smaller parties in the country to maximize their chance of participating in the Ethiopian parliament.

Keywords

Proportional Representation, Majoritarian Electoral System, Multi-Party System, Optimal

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2730
Labour Process of Football Referees In Professional leagues: The Example of Sakarya Province
Author(s): Cemal IYEM, Dilek CELEB TEMKINER, Gokhan CAKMAK, Halil Ibrahim GENC      Pages: [254-269]
Abstract

In the world, the beginning of the football refereeing, was correlated with the beginning and spread of football. With football becoming such a colossal industry, footballers who play this game, have been turned into leisure time employees. Particularly, the labour process of footballers have begun at this point where football has turned into a profession. The profession of football refereeing has come into prominence as the decision-making authority about conflict in football field, while the footballer are playing football. Just as the effort footballers perform, referees also perform in order to manage the football match and make the right decisions. However, when it is investigated, it is observed that there are very few scientific research done. Consequently, referees to be studied in a scientific research is quite important in order to overcome the lack of information on this subject. In the study semi-structured interview of qualitative research was used.

Keywords

Football Refereeing, Labour Process, Football Industry

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2731
Testing the Existence of Cobb-Douglas and CES Production Functions in Nigeria
Author(s): David Iheke Okorie      Pages: [270-297]
Abstract

Following the numerous arguments for and against the production functions, this research work tries to find out if the production functions, particularly the Cobb-Douglas and Constant Elasticity of Substitution (CES) production functions holds for Nigeria using an annual time series data from 1970-2012. The Cobb-Douglas and CES production functions which are originally non-linear were linearized and the Ordinary Least Square (OLS) methodology was used. This study also carried out Error Correction Models for each of the production functions in order to know how disequilibrium in output adjusts in the short run for both production functions. It was discovered that both production functions are suitable for the Nigeria economy. The Cobb-Douglas as well as constant elasticity of substitution production function exhibit increasing returns to scale. The results also showed that labour contributes more to output than capital does. Again, for both production functions their error correction models showed that a greater fraction of disequilibrium in output is adjusted in the short run. For the error correction model for Cobb-Douglas it was shown that 87% of disequilibrium in output is adjusted in a year while that for constant elasticity of substitution production function showed 88% of disequilibrium in output is adjusted in a year. The study therefore concludes that the Cobb-Douglas and constant elasticity of substitution production functions are appropriate for the Nigerian economy. The study recommends that both production functions can be used to make forecast in Nigeria.

Keywords

Cobb-Douglas and CES

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2732
Abstract

The nature and state of the Nigerian economy could only suggest lack of proficiency in policymaking; tool of the policy makers of Nigeria. It is however a fallacy because Nigeria do not lack right policies but the execution will of these policies. Using monthly series from 1999 to 2014 via the methodologies of Threshold GARCH and GARCH-in-mean , National Elections in Nigeria do not only influence significantly the Volatility or swings in the exchange rate of Naira but depreciates Naira further. The more this Risk is absorbed in the economy, the more the naira depreciates. Good news and bad news both significantly affect the exchange rate volatility significantly while bad news influences it more by which is in line with the findings of Dr. Oduh Moses and Ms. M. S. Priscilla, using Exponential GARCH to assess effects of Good and Bad information on exchange rate volatility of Nigeria. We recommend a strict restriction of the buying and selling of foreign currencies by the financial institutions at the appropriate periods concerning election campaign and advices banking campaign fund in domestic financial institutions as the monetary authority tighten their belt on sterilizing shocks on the exchange rate volatility.

Keywords

Elections, Risks, Good and Bad News, Exchange Rates, and Volatility

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2733
Environment of International Business and its Significance
Author(s): Akram Abdulraqeb Sultan Al-Khaled      Pages: [310-316]
Abstract

The simple observation that a market exchange process frequently generates significant transactions costs for the participants is not of itself, however, decisive in determining the form of alternative arrangement that would provide the most effective substitute to the price mechanism. Historians are only too aware that, in practice, a wide variety of institutional arrangements have been adopted by different societies in order to organize their economic activities. Academic quest to keep up with the rapid pace of globalization in business and industry. Clearly, the nature of doctoral research provides an indication of the quality and emerging direction of research in IB. It is not surprising that the Academy of International Business started a best dissertation award in 1986 that selects four finalists and a winner each year (renamed the Farmer Award in 1990). These Farmer Award finalist dissertations represent some of the best scholarly thinking in international business. Their selection as finalists reflects the judgments of the Farmer Award committees consisting of senior IB scholars and based on criteria established by the Academy of International

Keywords

Environment of International Business

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/1644
Emotional intelligence VS Self-Esteem: A Study of its Relationship among Hearing-Impaired Students
Author(s): Ummi Habibah Abd Rani, Najib Ahmad Marzuki      Pages: [317-323]
Abstract

This study examines the relationship between emotional intelligence and self-esteem of hearing-impaired students. Data from 163 hearing-impaired students were collected using simple random sampling at five polytechnics in Malaysia. The Bar-On Emotional Quotient: Short (EQ-i: S) instrument and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were utilised to explore the relationships between emotional intelligence and self-esteem. Elements of emotional intelligence comprises of intrapersonal, interpersonal, adaptability, stress management, and general mood. Findings exposed a positive significance correlations between self-esteem and emotional intelligence dimensions (interpersonal and general mood). The findings of this study will facilitate the education, family and society to create a supportive environment and encourage hearing-impaired students to have an awareness of their social environment.

Keywords

Emotional Intelligence, Self-Esteem, Hearing-Impaired, Polytechnic

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2736
Evaluation of Children’s Rehabilitation Program by Using the CIPP Model
Author(s): Hezzrin Mohd Pauzi, Nor Jana Saim, Norulhuda Sarnon @ Kusenin, Mohammad Rahim Kamaluddin      Pages: [324-332]
Abstract

Children’s rehabilitation program (CRP) is for reforming the negative behaviour of children who have committed crimes or offences, and should have a positive effect on child offenders. Therefore, evaluation of the program should be carried out from time to time. Among the evaluation guides that can be used is the CIPP Evaluation Model. This article discusses this evaluation model as the evaluation model for CRP. This study was done by literature review of articles and books regarding program evaluations, rehabilitation programs and the CIPP model. This article’s discussion is beneficial in the field of social work and prison affairs, specifically in terms of program evaluation and improvement as well as increasing the quality of rehabilitation in Malaysia.

Keywords

Program evaluation, rehabilitation program, child offenders, CIPP model, social work.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2737
Challenges faced By People with Disability for Getting Jobs: Entrepreneurship Solution for Unemployment
Author(s): Norhasyikin Rozali, Shuhairimi Abdullah, Siti Intan Diyana Ishak, Alia Ashrani Azmi, Nurul Husna Akhmar      Pages: [333-339]
Abstract

A job is the essence of the issue of people with disabilities is unemployed, apart from the issue of education, welfare, comfort, and help and so on. Entrepreneurship should be viewed as a new stepping stone to creating jobs people with disabilities. The challenges of this field and the entrepreneurial approach as a proactive step to help these people solve the employment problem. However, entrepreneurship and the disabled still new and needs to be explored more widely for the benefit of persons with disabilities.

Keywords

People with Disability, Employment, Barriers, Entrepreneurship, Opportunity

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2738
Kodaly’s Teaching Method Increasing Preschool Children’s Solfege Singing Skills
Author(s): Loy Chee Luen, Aminah Ayob, Colleen Wong, Christine Augustine      Pages: [340-347]
Abstract

The purpose of this study is to identify the difference between the children’s solfege singing skills in terms of the diction, pitch accuracy and rhythm between the treatment group and the control group. The solfege notation selected and evaluated in this study encompasses (i) so mi and (ii) so mi la. The duration of this study is two weeks. Fifty children from two preschools were selected as the respondents in this study. This study adopts the quasi-experimental design with one treatment group and one control group of twenty five children, respectively. The treatment group sang using hand signals, while the control group sang without the hand signals. The study finding shows that the Kodaly teaching method using hand signals is more effective to increase the skills in diction, pitch accuracy and rhythm if compared to the teaching method without the hand signals. Kodaly teaching method has given a positive impact based on the fact that the solfege notation needs to be used to improve children’s musical skills.

Keywords

Kodaly Teaching Method, Preschool, Children, Solfege Singing, Singing’s skills

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2739
The Study of Used Socio-Scientific issues (SSI) in Biology
Author(s): Muhamad Ikhwan Mat Saad, Sadiah Baharom, Siti Eshah Mokshien, Mohd Afifi Bahurudin Setambah      Pages: [348-355]
Abstract

Using socio-scientific issues (SSI) in science lesson especially biology is an approach for students to understand and empower the science concept. Students are given the opportunity to argue the issues and will improve the process of reasoning. Using this approach indirectly can create awareness of ethics and problem solving to students. From the literature review hopefully can develop reasoning skills model based on SSI. Structural Equation Model (SEM) approach is used for measure and identify the variables that contribute students’ reasoning skills. From trends of literature reviews, three independents variables were identified, Content Acquisition, Epistemology Science Belief, Adhered values and ethics towards Reasoning Skills as a dependent variable. Hoped this study will help to improve the empowering of science concepts and Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS). In another hand, it also can produce a holistic students and increase creative and critical thinking skill while using the model of reasoning as a guideline.

Keywords

Socio-Scientific Issues (SSI), Content Acquisition, Epistemology Science Belief, Adherence to the values and ethics, Reasoning Skills

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2740
Module Spiritual Coping Strategies (MSDTK): An Approach to Deal with Stress among Teachers Trainee
Author(s): Mohd Hafidz Osman, Md Noor Saper, Muhamad Nasir Bistamam, Muhamad Yusni Mohd Junos, Faizah Abdul Rashid      Pages: [356-365]
Abstract

Transforming life and the environment can be a burden factor amongst teacher trainees. Some of them failed to control and to deal with these burdens. In the field of education, teacher trainees encounter various challenges in the learning process. Hence, failure to control their state of emotions, thoughts and behaviors has caused teacher trainees to face problems with high pressure and low coping ability. Various methods of counseling modules have been highlighted, but the problem of high pressure and low coping ability amongst teacher trainees still exist. Thus, with the requirements of the module of spiritual coping strategies (MSDTK) should be applied among teacher trainees. Spiritual features are believed to form human emotions, thoughts and behavior. Nonetheless, the country is still lacking with spiritual coping strategies module (MSDTK). This paper discusses the impact and the needs of the spiritual coping strategy module among teacher trainees in addressing the problems of stress and coping. Highlighting the spiritual coping strategies module among the student is hoped to be a method in counseling that will help teacher trainees in dealing with pressure and coping ability.

Keywords

Stress, Spiritual Coping Strategies module, teacher trainee and Counseling

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2741
A Study of Motivation in Outdoor Recreational Activities
Author(s): M. Adli Mohd Sidi, Wirdati Mohd Radzi      Pages: [366-379]
Abstract

The purpose of the study is to identify the motivation in participation for outdoor recreation activities for private city campus University in Kuala Lumpur. Demand for outdoor recreation activities among Malaysian is rising but lack of survey has been conducted focusing on outdoor recreation for students from the private University especially from the City Campus students. Data collected from 120 students (60 from Faculty of Science and 60 from Faculty of Non-Science) who studying at this City Campus. Subjects were randomly selected for the survey consisted by the students from Faculty of Science and Faculty of Non Science. The questionnaire developed by Shazali & Hanim,(2012) to study the motivation in outdoor recreation activity for Science and Non Science students at University Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia. The data has been analyzed using the non-parametric measure by Mann Whitney U Test. Result indicated that the subject highly agreed that the main motivation for outdoor recreation participation for Private City Campus University, Kuala Lumpur for the Faculty of Science are the Accessibility to the Recreation Area, Healthy and As a Necessities of Life. For Faculty of Non Science are Looking for New Experience, Enjoy the Nature and Looking for Self Confident. The conclusion is for the city campus students, they are very appreciating the value of nature environment and highly request for the outdoor recreation activity to enrich their self-development value.

Keywords

Motivation, Outdoor Recreation

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2742
Concept Paper: Customer Satisfaction in Malaysian Takaful Industry
Author(s): Nur Hafifa Iswati Ishak      Pages: [380-391]
Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to review several determinants of customer satisfaction based on the existing literature. At the same time, the history of the development of Takaful Insurance Industry in the context of Malaysia has been revealed. Given that the study of customer satisfaction particularly in the Malaysia Takaful Industry is still limited; thus, the researcher attempt to bring the entire concept of customer satisfaction based on the findings of the previous research. Underpinning theory which may explain the relationship between variables which are related to customer satisfaction domain has been discussed.

Keywords

Customer Satisfaction, Takaful, Trust, Price, Islamic Insurance, Satisfaction

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2743
A Contemporary Theory of Social Entrepreneurship from Tawhidic Paradigm: A Conceptual Study
Author(s): Zaliza Azan, Suhaimi Mhd Sarif      Pages: [392-400]
Abstract

This study postulates a contemporary social entrepreneurship theory from Tawhidic paradigm for a comprehensive theory to describe the nature of the social entrepreneurship, the scope and boundaries of assessment on social entrepreneurship environments, and the assessment of internal aspects social entrepreneurship entities to formulate, implement, and evaluate strategies for survival and growth. The conventional approach to the theories of social entrepreneurship is not adequate to respond to external, internal, and human dynamism. The market-based theories of the social entrepreneurship emphasised on the market orientation of industrial organizational perspective only of the social entrepreneurship, which is lack of dynamism and sustainability for social entrepreneurship to survive and grow. As an alternative, this study postulates a social entrepreneurship theory of the firm the Tawhidic paradigm approach as a mean to achieve sustainability in terms of innovation and competitive advantages for social entrepreneurship. The study uses qualitative methods via (a) semi structured personal interview with three types of informants - government officers, SME association representatives, and founders/owners/managers of social enterprises in Malaysia, and a quantitative method via self-administered survey to social enterprises in Malaysia. The study expects the Tawhidic approach contributes to the theoretical and practical understanding of the development of a theory of social entrepreneurship. The results of the study should be considered tentative, or work-in-progress.

Keywords

Malaysia, Social entrepreneurship, Tawhidic paradigm, Theory of social entrepreneurship

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2744
Abstract

This study aims to identify teaching practices based on Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) which includes overall Malaysian. This study is an initial survey before further study on the run. Components such as higher-order thinking skills vary appeal, reorder the skills, skills forecasting, skills and expertise to create a definition of the analogy, that in view of the three main components of the initial of teaching, development of teaching and teaching cover selected as the conceptual framework. This study used a descriptive analysis (via questionnaire). All of data collection instruments were developed by the researcher and the contents were verified by expert reference panels. Cronbach alpha reliability level value obtained is high at between (0.9345). A total of 400 teachers of Islamic education were randomly selected and clustered to answer the questionnaires. Data were analyzed descriptively using percentages frequency and min. Overall, the study found that teaching practices based on higher order thinking skills is at the high level by means of the whole (4:43) and based teaching practice components consisting of an initial lesson min (4.45), development of teaching recorded min (4:44) and teaching cover recorded min (4:40). Implications and recommendations benefit ministries, schools, teachers and the community in improving the level of teaching practices based on higher order thinking skills (HOTS) as envisaged in the Education Development Plan 2013-2025

Keywords

Higher Order Thinking (HOTS), Islamic education, teaching practices.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2745
A Comparative Study on the Effectiveness of Cooperative Learning Method (STAD) against Traditional Methods in Landscape Painting
Author(s): Azman Bin Ab. Rahim@Ibrahim, Aziz Bin Zalay@Zali, Mohd. Zahuri Bin Khairani      Pages: [416-425]
Abstract

This study aimed to evaluate the use of cooperative learning method, Student Teams-Achievement Divisions-DAL (STAD), as compared to traditional learning methods in landscape painting among form four Muar High School students. A total of 35 students from two classes of Grade 4 were involved in the study. 15 students of 4 Jauhari were assigned as the control group while 15 students from 4 Smart became the experimental group. The experimental group was treated with STAD model approach while the control group was not given any treatment but to follow the process of teaching as usual. (This quasi-experimental study was used to evaluate the effectiveness of cooperative learning method (STAD) than traditional methods. Student achievement was measured based on the pre-test and post-test). The results obtained from this study indicated that the STAD cooperative method was more effective than the traditional methods of landscape painting coloring skills. Through this study, the comparison clearly showed that there was an improvement in the coloring method in painting landscapes after undergoing the cooperative learning method (STAD) as compared to students following traditional methods. From the findings of this study, I would recommend STAD cooperative learning as one of the appropriate methods and practices in painting learning for Visual Arts Education in schools.

Keywords

Cooperative Learning Method

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2746
Gender differences in the Perception of Social Support and Cognitive Engagement
Author(s): Sharifah Azizah Syed Sahil, Rosna Awang Hashim      Pages: [426-439]
Abstract

A number of studies have provided evidence of the link between social support factors and academic achievement and a strong relation between cognitive engagement and achievement outcomes. However, the relationships between social support factors and cognitive engagement have seldom been tested. The present study is aimed at proposing latent factor modelling that addresses the significance of social support from parents, teachers and peers with respect to adolescent cognitive engagement. A total of 450 secondary school adolescents from a northern region in Malaysia participated in the survey. Using structural equation modelling as the main analysis, the hypothesised model was tested. Results revealed that the structural models differed for female and male models. Also, the findings support self-efficacy beliefs and behavioural engagement as two mediators in the relation between social support and cognitive engagement for girls, but only self-efficacy was a mediator in this association for boys. Implications of the study are discussed in relation to Bandura’s social cognitive theory.

Keywords

Social Support and Cognitive Engagement

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2747
Estimating Technical Efficiency and Bootstrapping Malmquist Indices: Analysis of Malaysian Preschool Sector
Author(s): Mad Ithnin Salleh, Nurul Fadly Habidin, Abdul Halim Masnan, Nordin Mamat      Pages: [440-457]
Abstract

This study is focused on conceptual paper and the purpose of this study is to conduct an empirical investigation into the Malaysian Preschool institutions, focusing on measuring their technical efficiency and productivity changes. This study is to examine the nature of productivity changes by means of bootstrapped Malmquist TFP indices. The study use a Three-year set of panel data (2009–2012) for analyzing the performance of 8307 KEMAS Preschools classes during the implementation of the (Government Transformation Program) GTP 1.0. The study considered all KEMAS Preschools classes operating in the sector. The input and output data were manually extracted from the Malaysia’s Ministry of Rural and Regional Development (MRRD) and all KEMAS Preschools. Non-parametric DEA models are employed to estimate efficiency and productivity changes of the institutions. Thus, this study is expected makes significant contributions to the literature of efficiency and productivity changes in Early Childhood Care and education institutions.

Keywords

Technical Efficiency, Productivity Changes, Bootstrapped Malmquist, Preschool Sector

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2748
Coping Strategies and Job Stress in Policing: A Literature Review
Author(s): Fatimah Zulkafaly, Kamaruzzaman Kamaruddin, Nurul Huda Md. Hassan      Pages: [458-467]
Abstract

Police officers often experienced stress when executing their job. Police officers utilized certain coping strategies, such as cognitive coping, behavioral coping, social support group such as close friends and emotional coping to deal with job stress. There are many research discussed regarding the issue of coping strategies in policing while encountering with job stress. However, it lacks a clear classification of coping strategies approach. This study aimed to review previous articles that related to coping strategies utilized by police officers when encountering their job stress and to provide a broad summary regarding this issue. Based on the library research, the categories of coping strategies were developed in policing. Further, this study also highlighted external factors that might influence police officers preferences to employ certain ways of coping. The suggestions for future study research of coping strategies with job stress in policing also discussed.

Keywords

Coping, Stress, Policing, Systematic Review

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2749
Mental Health and Trauma Counselling Module as Strategy to Enhance Counsellors’ Competency in Handling Trauma Cases Caused by Flood Calamity
Author(s): Mohammad Nasir Bistamam, Samsiah Mohd Jais, Nurul Hasyimah Mat Rani, Mohammad Aziz Shah Mohamed Arip, Noraini Ismail, Muhammad Bazlan Mustafa      Pages: [468-479]
Abstract

Bera and Temerloh are two districts in Pahang with the worst flood calamity recorded within the country towards the end of 2014 and early 2015. This calamity has destroyed not only properties, but also deeply affected the victims psychologically especially the students. Some of the victims show symptoms of crisis and trauma in short terms and long terms which are affecting the wellbeing of their lives. These victims might suffer Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) if their symptoms of crisis and trauma are not treated accordingly. As such, the presence of counselling teachers competent in mental health and trauma counselling are essential in such critical moment. However, most counselling teachers are not well-trained particularly in handling mental health counselling in order to help the victims. There are four main objectives of the Knowledge Transfer Program (KTP): i) to develop human capital among the Graduate Interns (GI) who would be competent in handling and transferring the mental health and trauma counselling knowledge; ii) to enhance knowledge and competency level of the counselling teachers in managing mental health and trauma counselling; iii) to increase support, coping skills and resilience of the community to bounce back and recover from the symptoms of crisis and trauma caused by the flood; and iv) to acquire recognition to the academicians as experts in mental health and trauma counselling through the Mental Health and Trauma Counselling module (MHTC). The knowledge transfer program is implemented through workshops and practical training to 80 counselling teachers in Bera and Temerloh districts in Pahang. Results from the program show that: i) the GI have high competency level in handling the delivery of mental health and trauma counselling which includes mental healthcare, assessing the symptoms of crisis and trauma, managing the crisis and trauma intervention, and managing the trauma counselling; ii) the counselling teachers are competent in managing the mental health and trauma counselling which includes mental healthcare, assessing the symptoms of crisis and trauma, and trauma counselling; iii) the community members particularly the students who were traumatized by the flood received help through crisis intervention and trauma counselling by the counselling teachers who offered support to increased their coping skills and resilience; and iv) the academicians have received recognition from various parties especially from the Districts Education Offices of Malaysia, Police, and the International Counsellors Association of Malaysia or PERKAMA International.

Keywords

Mental Health and Trauma Counselling Module, Counselling Teachers, Flood Calamity.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2750
Profile of Livestock Production in Thal Desert of Pakistan
Author(s): Ijlal Hussain      Pages: [480-494]
Abstract

In Pakistan, since the introduction of Green Revolution technologies, the crop sector has earned relatively more attention of the policy makers and agricultural development practitioners than the livestock sector. Despite that the relative share of livestock sector in total agricultural GDP kept on silently increasing almost regularly. In the rural areas, livestock is considered as a more secure source of income for the small farmers and landless poor. Similarly, a consideration proportion of rural households in desert ecologies especially Thal desert at drawing their livelihood from livestock farming. Therefore the present study is intended to examine the livestock profile of the area with regards to the herd size. The results of the study reveal that the normal herd size was almost 17 standard animal units. The important objectives of livestock farming were to meet with the milk consumption, and sale of animals. Natural breeding was more common than artificial breeding method. In general the large group of livestock holders was rich as compared to the other groups in producing and sale of milk and livestock related products whereas small group of herders were observed poorest than middle and large livestock holders. The lack of credit facilities to livestock holders and their involvement in the commercialization of livestock production were limited. Disease diagnosis and first aid, improving crops and fodder production were the large areas regarding training requirement while provision of electricity and schools were primary necessities of livestock holders of the people. The development of infrastructure and institutional credit facilities and trainings should be provided to the farmers. It is also suggested that the genetic potential of livestock breeds, artificial insemination and services of good breed of sires should be popularized. The development planers and practitioners of the area should award due consideration to the problems of small sized farmers and herders and need to design regulatory framework for milk and livestock marketing systems.

Keywords

Livestock Production, Herd Size Group, Livestock holders, Thal Desert Pakistan, Significance Level

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2751
Attributes for Multi-Ethnic Students’ Acceptance towards the Cultivation of the Implementation of Citizenship Values in Secondary School
Author(s): Sitti Hasnah Bandu, Mohd Mahzan Awang, Abdul Razak Ahmad      Pages: [495-503]
Abstract

The element of citizenship is very significant in forming a nation especially in a country such as Malaysia which is a unique country for its multiracial and multi-ethnic society. All citizens should have the competency in carrying out their responsibilities towards the country. Education is an alternative way to develop students' competence in carrying out the responsibilities as a citizen of the country. Citizenship education which is taught in Civics and Citizenship Education (PSK) subject is deemed able to provide civic education to students. The goals of PSK curriculum is to create awareness among students about the roles, rights and responsibilities towards the society and the country in order to create members of the community and citizens of the country who are united, patriotic and able to contribute towards the betterment of the society and the country. Therefore, this study was carried out to identify and verify the attributes of students’ acceptance for the cultivation of the implementation of citizenship elements through PSK subject. A quantitative approach using survey method was used in the design of this study. This study used a questionnaire method which is administered to 100 high school students as respondents. Reliability of instruments refers to the degree of measurement that is consistent for every time a measurement is conducted and tested through Cronbach’s alpha coefficients. This study found that there are five important attributes that need to be examined with regards to students’ acceptance of the cultivation of the implementation of citizenship values through PSK subjects in school. Five of these important attributes are the strategy and teaching methods; textbooks and reference books; use of teaching aids; classroom activities; and assessments.

Keywords

Citizenship, Values, Ethnicity, Implementation, Competency

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2753
International and Culturally Diverse Learning Environment Element in Teaching and Learning
Author(s): Azwani Masuwai, Nor’ain Mohd Tajudin, Noor Shah Saad      Pages: [504-513]
Abstract

The purpose of this study is to explore the importance of international and culturally diverse learning environment element in Teaching and Learning Guiding Principles (TLGP). The study employed a survey design and was administered to 350 Malaysian teacher educators from ten Malaysian higher teacher education institutions which were selected using cluster sampling technique. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was used to test for model fit, reliability and validity of the construct measured namely the international and culturally diverse learning environment. The CFA results yielded four items of international and culturally diverse learning environment, indicated goodness of fit indices (TLI=1.002, CFI=1.000, RMSEA=0.000) with all factor loadings were more than 0.5 as well as high item reliability and internal consistency (AVE=0.60, CR=0.83). This study provides an indication for the evidence of the importance of the international and culturally diverse learning environment element in teaching and learning guiding principles. Offering an atmosphere of international and culturally diverse learning environment in teaching and learning may contribute to greater meaningful learning and diverse culturally environment that can be explored and experienced by the students individually with multi-layered culture around them.

Keywords

Teaching and learning guiding principles; international and culturally diverse learning environment; teacher educator; higher teacher education institution; confirmatory factor analysis

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2754
Influence of Hierarchy Sustainability Governance in Ecotourism Management: Case Study in Paya Indah Wetlands
Author(s): Mohamad Fauzi Mohamad Saruman, Muhammad Rizal Razman, Sharifah Zarina Syed Zakaria, Lee Khai Ern      Pages: [514-527]
Abstract

Governance is a very important interaction process involving government, private sector and civil society in decision-making. Knowing the influence of sustainability governance to the ecotourism management is important to make ecotourism objective and Ecotourism Center more successful. Thus, the study was done to assess the hierarchy sustainability governance based on documents analysis on Paya Indah Wetlands (PIW) ecotourism management in so that environmental quality is maintained and generating national income. The study was carried out by identifying and analyzing the themes and sub themes of hierarchy governance that affect the sustainability of PIW ecotourism management. Qualitative study conducted in PIW by analyzing legal documents, guidelines and SOPs related to the ecotourism management in PIW by analyze the data using Nvivo version 11 software. The findings indicate that hierarchy sustainability governance influence PIW ecotourism management through security element according to rules and regulations in the form of legislation and non-legislation; monitoring and top-down bureaucracy approach involving application and approval process. The result is dynamic because every theme that are safety, regulation and bureaucracy cannot stand alone in the management of ecotourism but need help from other themes, creates a complex interdependence. In conclusion, based on documents analysis, hierarchy sustainability governance affect the ecotourism management in PIW.

Keywords

Hierarchy governance, ecotourism, sustainability, Paya Indah Wetlands, complexity interdependency.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2755
A Review Evolution Dominant Theories in Adaptation to Franchising System
Author(s): Norazman Saharum, Ahmad Rahman Songip, Nurul Fadly Habidin, Mas Bambang Baroto      Pages: [528-538]
Abstract

The purpose behind this review is to review development, dominant theories in adaptation to franchising system . This review examined four theories related to franchising prospectively, namely resource scarcity theory , agency theory , resource base view theory and screening theory. These four theories have been utilized by numerous researchers to help clarify the requirement for the advancement of sustainability management ; none of those theories seem to have the unique features, benefits and opportunities such as, "Halal" and "Riba" idea to franchise business group. However, since the thought of good business moral and ethical in " Halal" and "Riba" concept is moderately new for most researchers .The author hope this article starts an exchange among franchisor and franchisee to better describe, create, and apply this and the related new idea to move toward the franchising industry as significantly , effectively, and urgently as possible.

Keywords

Franchisor, Franchisee, Scarcity Theory, Agency Theory, Resource Base View Theory, Screening Theory,”Halal”, “Riba”, Franchising Industry, Sustainability

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2756
Cooperative Learning in Mathematics Education
Author(s): Liew Lee Chan, Noraini Idris      Pages: [539-553]
Abstract

Cooperative learning is a teaching strategy that encourages students to assist each other in a small group to achieve a common goal. Through cooperative learning methods, each student in the group responsible to share opinion and work together to solve the mathematical problem. The aim of this study is to examine cooperative learning method in Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) model to assist students to excel in Mathematics. The research methodology used for this study is systematic review on current cooperative learning (CL) in teaching of Mathematics. First, this paper starts with concept of cooperative learning. Next, the STAD model and cooperative learning in Mathematics are also highlighted in the paper. Finally, the findings of 12 studies of cooperative learning methods in the classroom were discussed in this study. It is hoped that this study will be able to shade some light on the implementation of cooperative learning in Mathematics education.

Keywords

Cooperative learning, STAD, Mathematics Education, Teaching Strategy, Group

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2757
Productive Zakat Distribution by Zakat Institutions in Malaysia
Author(s): Izatul Akmar binti Ismail, Muhammad Nasri bin Hussain      Pages: [554-565]
Abstract

Zakat is one of the five pillars of Islam. The significance of zakat is largely attributed to its effectiveness as a distribution tool in the process of wealth circulation and social security. Therefore, effective management and distribution of zakat funds is very important to improve quality of life and alleviate poverty of recipients. Many initiatives that have been done by zakat institutions to distribute zakat fund to asnaf. The initiatives include distribution of zakat funds productively and unproductive. Unproductive method that has been used before is a direct distribution of fund to asnaf. Recently, zakat institution has transformed the unproductive method to productive method. One of productive method is giving zakat fund to potential asnaf in the form of business capital, business tools, business financing and working salary. Each state in Malaysia has its own strategies in the productive zakat distribution to eligible recipients. Therefore, this study describes the productive zakat distribution by zakat institutions in Malaysia. The data obtained from the website of each zakat institution, zakat report, the annual report and previous studies were analyzed using content analysis method to describe management of zakat productive in Malaysia.

Keywords

Zakat, Zakat Management, Zakat Distribution, Productive Zakat, Entrepreneurship

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2758
Does Work-Family Conflict affect Women Entrepreneurial Success?
Author(s): Maliani Mohamad, Muhammad Shukri Bakar      Pages: [566-571]
Abstract

The field of entrepreneurship in Malaysia is no longer dominated by men. Increasingly, women’s entrepreneurship has been recognized as an important untapped source of economic growth. Although their participations are still small, factors such as strong government support in terms of promoting equal opportunities and the provision of better access to business skills and knowledge are pushing more and more women towards entrepreneurship. However, having to assume multiple roles both in relation to business and family affairs has given rise to several encumbered implications. Given a multitude of challenges faced, concerns are raising over the consequences of inter-role conflict exacting upon women entrepreneurs while they try to balance the incompatibility of demands between work role and family role. Hence this paper tries to examine effects of work-family conflict on women entrepreneurs as they attempt to steer their businesses to success.

Keywords

Women Entrepreneurial Success, Work-Family Conflict

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2759
A Review: Formation of Character Creative Students by Sternberg Theory
Author(s): Poon Thin Fook, Mazlina Che Mustafa      Pages: [572-585]
Abstract

Creativity is an ability to see things from a new perspective and the ability to find and solve a problem in a different way, which has never been attempted before and unusual. It connects the physical and mental experience of the original, unique and different. Along with the increasingly challenging era of globalization and technological development is booming, students who have a sense of creativity are needed in our society today. The study systematically reviews is to study the factors that have been identified are intelligence, knowledge, styles of thinking, personality, motivation and the environment. These factors are based on the theory of creativity Sternberg. It is important for parents, teachers and school authorities to determine the factors that contribute to the character of the students' creativity.

Keywords

Creativity; motivation; intelligence; student character; personality;

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2760
Abstract

This paper reports on the validation of the Teaching and Learning Guiding Principles for Teacher Educators by means of interviews with the two policy makers and three teacher trainers. Through document analyses of the prospectuses from certain reputable teacher education institutions as well as the policy documents from countries such as Finland, Australia, Singapore and USA the Teaching and Learning Guiding Principles comprising 6 themes were conceptualized, namely (1) intellectual excitement; (2) quality learning spaces; (3) constructive alignment; (4) international and cultural diversity; (5) climate of inquiry and critical reflection; and (6) nurture good values, attitude and behaviour. Nonetheless, the validity of the conceptualised Teaching and Learning Guiding Principles (TLGP) solely through document analyses is less rigour. Therefore, to increase the rigour, these TLGP were subjected to validation by experts consisting of two policy makers who once held the post of the deputy Director General of Education in the Malaysian Ministry of Education, and three senior teacher trainers at the Teachers’ Training Institutes. In the interview, these policy makers and teacher trainers were asked to provide their views of the conceptualised TLGP in terms of scope and breath. The interviews were recorded and subsequently transcribed so as to enable a recursive qualitative analysis. The results indicate that, while the policy makers and teacher educators were generally in agreement with the six themes in the conceptualised TLGP, they, however, extended these themes with two additional themes, namely (1) nature entrepreneurship and (2) value the mother nature. The validated Teaching and Learning Guiding Principles with 8 themes constitute the cornerstone of the development of Teaching and Learning Framework for teacher educators in preparing future teachers.

Keywords

Teacher Education, Guiding Principles, Teacher Educators

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2761
Abstract

Reflection and the promotion of reflective practice have been extensively emphasised in the teacher training and preparation programmes. In teacher education, many researchers have argued the importance of student teachers (STs) being able to develop their skills of reflection. This study was conducted to investigate the STs’ level of reflection during teacher clinical experience (TCE) (or variously known as the teaching practicum). It sought to analyse the level of reflection among STs from the Sultan Idris Education University (UPSI) in the current practice of reflective writing and after given exposure to the critical reflection manual (CRM) during TCE. The present study employed Van Manen’s (1977) three-stage model (technical, practical and critical) to determine the level of reflection based on STs’ self-reflection notes in their daily lesson plan books (for the current practice of reflective writing) and weekly reflective journal writings (for STs who were given exposure to the CRM). The research participants consisted of seven STs who were undergoing TCE from February to June 2014 (for the current practice of reflective writing) and eleven STs who were undergoing TCE from July to October 2015 (for STs who were given exposure to the CRM). Results of the analyses showed that STs were barely reflective, demonstrating very low level of reflection for the current practice of reflective writing while STs exhibited practical and critical levels of reflection after given exposure to the CRM. Interpretations of the results are presented and recommendations are discussed within the context of the study.

Keywords

Level of Reflection; Reflective Writing; Student Teachers; Teacher Clinical Experience.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2762
Abstract

This study is to develop and establish the reliability attributes of quality science teacher from Malaysian science teacher perspectives. This paper discusses the validity and reliability of quality science teacher attributes obtained through the Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) process using IBM SPSS Version 21. The design of quantitative survey method used in this study to collect data through attributes of quality science teacher instrument (AQSTI) which has been generated from the previous studies. AQSTI consist of 68 item under three constructs namely value, skill and knowledge were put together to form a questionnaire using a 5-point Likert-scaled. Participants consisted of 230 science teacher in secondary school. The instrument was representing indicators for quality science teacher attributes. The internal consistency using Cronbach’s coefficient alpha for every construct is greater than 0.800. For the overall instrument using the 68 items that comprised the three constructs, internal consistency reliability revealed a Cronbach’s coefficient alpha of 0.900. From the analysis, 42 items of quality science teachers generate where 19 items retained under values attributes, six item for skills attribute and, 17 item for knowledge attributes. However, there were 26 items absent from the original questionnaire, thus the items were discarded because they were found inappropriate for representing constructs proposed. Consequently, a total of 42 items representing indicators for these attributes of a quality science teacher. Furthermore, all the attributes used to collecting data to develop attributes of quality science teacher for the real study to improve the quality of student teachers, in terms of values, skills and knowledge.

Keywords

Exploratory Factor Analysis, Attributes, Quality Science Teacher, Values, Skills And, Knowledge.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2763
The Construct of Policy Leadership: A Conceptual Framework
Author(s): Noryati Alias, Azahari Ismail      Pages: [624-634]
Abstract

This paper provides a framework in defining and presenting the concept of “policy leadership”. Policy leadership are activities that leaders in organizations take to guarantee that the internal and external policy environments keep on being beneficial to the purpose, culture, and changing circumstances of the organization. Policy leadership is not just restricted to the acknowledgment of policy unquestioningly, yet it is likewise worries on the improvements, and changes but it provides the basis for policy execution and implementation in organizations. This type of leadership is significantly important for leaders who are encircled and enclosed with internal and external policies in their organizations that need them to deal proactively and positively within the policies for organizational well-being and its effectiveness. This emerging concept will assists leaders in understanding the ‘what’ and ‘why’ of policy leadership. Besides that, policy leadership provides an opportunity for understanding the role of leaders engaging in policies to achieve organizational effectiveness. However, future research is needed to empirically validate the concept through systematic investigations that sheds light on the constructs and later devise a scale to measure policy leadership.

Keywords

Policy Leadership

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2764
The Malay Version of CCAPS-62: A Preliminary Investigation of Translation, Validity, and Reliability
Author(s): Kee Pau, Ahmad Jazimin Jusoh, Asma Perveen, Hapsah Md Yusof, Hsin-Ya Tang      Pages: [635-652]
Abstract

Mental health problems become a pervasive yet under-detected and undertreated growing issues among Malaysian university students. Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms (CCAPS) is an instrument that has been widely used in all universities and colleges in the United States, but it has not been practiced in Malaysia. The purpose of this preliminary study was to translate, culturally adapt, and validate the CCAPS into the Malay language and make it applicable as a screening tool for addressing mental health issues among university students. The translation and back-translation were used. A total sample of 252 university students from a public university was participated in this study. Results from exploratory factor analysis supported the original version of CCAPS-62, which was an eight-factor model. Findings provided preliminary evidence for adequate internal consistency with Cronbach's Alpha 0.946. Content validity was obtained from two experts and they endorsed the quality of the items with 0.97 content validity index. Implications are discussed to provide further information regarding the mental health issues and the CCAPS-62 Malay version as a screening tool for university counseling centers to address students’ mental health symptoms.

Keywords

Translation, Validity, and Reliability

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2765
The Elements of Landscape in Islamic Courtyard Design: Case Study of Bayt Al-Suhaymi Museum in Cairo, Egypt and Alhambra Granada, Spain
Author(s): Nik Muhamad Syafwan Bin Nik Man, Wan Kamal Nadzif Bin Wan Jamil, Muhammad Yusri bin Yusof @ Salleh      Pages: [653-667]
Abstract

This paper presents a review on the elements of landscape in Islamic Courtyard design. The aim of this paper is to study element of courtyard design with the comparison Bayt al- Suhaymi, Egypt and Alhambra Granada, Spain. The finding of this research will help to define the to identify the characteristics of Islamic courtyard design are include: quadripartite layout are the harmonies central unit of courtyard, use of water and vegetation and shade are reflection of heaven and environmental control, pavilion to protection and shelter and the walls and gates to privacy and human comfort. It is hoped that the paper can give the knowledge for the idea of Islamic courtyard design as a make the environment calmer at courtyard through the element of courtyard design and provide benefits to the user.

Keywords

Islamic Garden, Landscape design, Courtyard design

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2766
Orientalists and Islam: Ramifications to Educational System in Malaya
Author(s): Mohd Farhan Abd Rahman, Nurul Hidayah Aziz, Muhammad Yusri bin Yusof@Salleh      Pages: [668-676]
Abstract

The majority of orientalists embrace philosophy of logical positivism empirical i.e. an understanding that accentuate enforcement of reason thoroughly, as approach to acquire a meticulous fact based on rigorous and systematic research methods. The philosophy disclaims the attestation of a fact by the source of revelation indeed considered irrelevant in the verification of history. This article pinpoints the analysis of Orientalists’ thought to educational system in Malaya, proportion to religious and secular education, in fact to determine the influence of Islam in education in Malaya. The author executes historical graphs method, comparative and content analysis in order to evaluate Orientalists’ thought. The study results Orientalist writings and their thinking approaches towards educational system in Malaya channel to impugn perspective in order to evaluate Malays and the influence of Islam in the Malaya, and even angle to a biased point of consideration. Orientalist labels Malays as decelerate and retardate nation in terms of modernization of its hold unto Islam which are not relevant to current developments. Therefore, improvement thru the implementation of Western educational system is believe as a felicitous course so as implementation of secularism into Malays in Malaya.

Keywords

Malaya, Malays, Islam, Orientalist, Education

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2767
Specialized Sciences of Al-Shafi’i (d. 204/820): Reformation unto Modern Epoch
Author(s): Nurul Hidayah Aziz, Norazmi Anas, Mohd Farhan Abd Rahman, Shahril Nizam Zulkipli, Amin Che Ahmat      Pages: [677-689]
Abstract

This study attempts to explore and understand specialized science in the perspectives of al-Shafi’i. It also aims to study development of al-Shafi’i’s thought of specialized sciences towards modern thought of Muslim scholars. From the collection of primary data sources, this study precedes data analysis by al-Shafi’i’s thought regarding classification of knowledge. Then, data are presented in order to understand and differentiate the specialized sciences pertaining to al-Shafi’i. This paper attempts to explore and analysis the formation of specialized sciences from classical to modern scholars. Then, proceeds by synthesis of nature, sources, scope and concept of specialized sciences developed by scholars. Moreover, this study process reformation stage of specialized sciences from modern Muslim scholars like Syed Naquib al-Attas and Mohd Kamal Hassan. The findings indicate that al-Shafi’i classifies knowledge into two major categories, i.e. common science and specialized science. Then, the attention of knowledge in al-Shafi’i’s thought is upon specialized sciences where the direction of al-Risalah is. In addition, al-Shafi’i understands knowledge latitudes and knowledge seeker of specialized sciences is upon accountability of expertise of a specialized group. The findings also demonstrate that there are influences between specialized sciences besides collective obligations, probable science (haqq al-zahir), science of consensus (‘ilm al-ijma’), and science of divergences (‘ilm al-ikhtilaf). Additionally, improvement of specialized sciences of al-Shafi’i has inspired modern scholars to introduce and execute Islamization; a process of way forward. This study is noteworthy in order to perceive the understanding of specialized sciences as proposed by al-Shafi’i; in the context of reformation to modern epoch.

Keywords

Specialized Sciences, Al-Shafi’i, Islamization

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2768
Exploring the Authentic Teaching and Learning Experience of the Apprentices of the National Dual Training System
Author(s): Norhayati Yahaya, Mohamad Sattar Rasul, Ruhizan Mohamad Yasin      Pages: [690-703]
Abstract

The study is a concept paper on the authentic teaching and learning (T&L) experience of the National Dual Training System (NDTS) apprentices. The authentic T&L emphasizes on the two learning aspects centred on trainers and apprentices. This is because the success of of authentic T&L can only be experienced with active participation from the trainers and trainees. An apprentice would not just learn the theoretical aspects, but they must know how to apply the practical aspects, and perform the positive social values within the time allocated. The learning atmosphere allows the apprentice to combine the practical and the theories from the formal education and apply it practically. The research explored and explained a few autehntic T&L models that were often debated and applied in past research that could form as the background for future studies.

Keywords

Teaching And Learning (T&L), Authentic, National Dual Training System (NDTS)

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2769
The Evaluation of Neighborhood Facilities and Services of Low Cost Housing (LCH) in Kuala Terengganu: Residential Satisfaction Perspective
Author(s): Hezzrin Mohd Pauzi, Siti Hajar Abu Bakar Ah, Lukman Z.M      Pages: [704-712]
Abstract

In Malaysia, the National Housing Policy made housing one of the main objectives in fulfilling the needs of the people.Therefore, a study on the status of one housing program for the poor and those from the lower-income bracket, namely the Low-Cost Housing (LCH), in influencing the quality of life of its target group was carried out. A field study was done to evaluate the consistency of neighbourhood facilities and services of the LCH with the housing needs of the target group. The main instrument in primary data collection was using a survey method utilizing structured questionnaires. Around 325 household heads for six flat-type low cost housing programs in Kuala Terengganu were involved in this study. Results showed that residents are dissatisfied with neighbourhood facilities. This study recommends an immediate improvement of neighbourhood facilities in these low-cost housing.

Keywords

Evaluation Program, Neighbourhood Facilities, Low-Cost Housing Program, Residential Satisfaction

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2770
Abstract

The paper explores conceptually the chronological development of the theory of the firm, the theory of entrepreneurship and theory of social entrepreneurship. This theories constructs were explained to provide the important part of the development based on economic circumstances. This paper allows researchers to get the main ideas from the pioneer stage until current enlargement under the theory of the firm, the theory of entrepreneurship and theory of social entrepreneurship with the moderate information. Theoretically, learning the early stages of these theories allows flexible and focused for all enterprises to perform better. Social entrepreneurship with the hybrid corporate objectives requires more understanding towards this theory for sustainability and increase competitive advantage.

Keywords

Theory of the Firm, Theory of Entrepreneurship, Theory of Social Entrepreneurship

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2771
Can Education Institution Implement STEM? From Malaysian Teachers’ View
Author(s): Nur Farhana Ramli, Othman Talib      Pages: [721-732]
Abstract

STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics) has been implemented in schools beginning 2017. The main objective of the paper is to find out the views of science teachers regarding the implementation of STEM in schools. This study utilized a qualitative approach in which interviews were carried out among five secondary school teachers who teach science subjects (science, biology, chemistry or physics). The results showed that teachers’ understanding in implementing STEM is insufficient. This was due to lack of information from the authorities. There are some barriers highlighted in this study which are motivation, syllabus, time constraints, lack of training, inadequate facilities, students’ involvement and school community response. This study suggests the urgent need for authorities to disseminate understanding and provide sufficient training to the teachers as well as to overcome the barriers as they are going to implement STEM in schools.

Keywords

STEM, STEM implementation, STEM barriers, Malaysia

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2772
The Counselors’ Psychological Well Being
Author(s): Mahani Ismail, Shahrir Jamaluddin, Melati Sumari      Pages: [733-738]
Abstract

This study is to identify the level of psychological well-being and to investigate the counselor’s level of psychological well being within the six dimensions in the psychological well being scale. The subjects consisted of 203 counselors who are serving in organization counselors who serve in the Psychology and Counseling Division, Ministry of Education, State Education Department, District Education Office, Institute of Teacher Education and Matriculation College. The instrument used is Ryff Psychological Well-being Scale (Ryff, 1989). It was adopted from the instrument that had been translated into Malay Language. Pilot study was held to determine the reliability of items in the questionnaires. Reliability tests for this research is the analysis of Cronbach Alpha. The reliability coefficient for the scales was .83. The study showed that the level of psychological well being is high (mean = 234.52). The study also showed that four dimensions scored high level with the highest level of mean is Personal Growth (mean=44.93), followed by Positive Relation With Others (mean=42.72), Environment Mastery (mean=40.03) and Purpose in Life (mean=37.05) and only two dimensions scored moderate level (Self – Acceptance (mean=35.41) and Autonomy (mean=33.39).

Keywords

Well-being, Psychological Well-being, Counselor, Dimensions

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2773
Entrepreneurship Education and Employment in Nigeria
Author(s): Adam Adem Anyebe      Pages: [739-747]
Abstract

One objective of education is to ensure that the learning needs of the young people as well as the old are met through equitable access to appropriate learning and life skills. This study, therefore attempted to examine the relationship between entrepreneurship education and employment in Nigeria. Data for the study were obtained mainly from the headquarters of Universal Basic Education, Abuja, the 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, bulletins of National Educational Research and Development Council, UNDP’s Human Development Report (2002), Joint Admissions and Matriculation Board, and National Bureau of Statistics. It is revealed that schools in Nigeria are characterized by outmoded operational processes and management structures which are incapable of producing graduates with the capacity to generate creative ideas and to turn such ideas into satisfying ventures. The paper therefore, recommends curriculum review in order to develop entrepreneurship skills and culture in the youth and in the adults and to keep space with the present reality. A conclusion is made that if entrepreneurship education is properly implemented and all the associated advantages harnessed, the high level of unemployment in the country will be drastically reduced. In this regard, all higher educational institutions in Nigeria should actively embrace and sustain the spirit of the emerging entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurial development in Nigerian higher institutions of learning can begin by encouraging the students to replicate the products that have been invented elsewhere in any part of the world while effort is then made to create what the world will also copy from them. The entrepreneurial climate should be made favourable so that the entrepreneurship in Nigeria can evolve from the present stage to the level where the world will have cause to patronize the country’s products. This can be attained through curriculum reforms that promote the inculcation of the generic skills.

Keywords

Job Creation, Education, Unemployment, Employment, Developmentalist, Entrepreneurship.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2789
A Study of Participation Motive in Outdoor Recreational Activities
Author(s): M.Adli Mohd Sidi, Wirdati Mohd Radzi, Mohd Salleh Aman, Mazuki Mohd Yassim      Pages: [740-753]
Abstract

The purpose of the study is to identify the students’ participation motive in outdoor recreation activities at private city campus University at Kuala Lumpur. Demand for outdoor recreation activities among Malaysians is rising but there has been lack of survey being conducted focusing on outdoor recreation for students from the private University especially from the City Campus students. The data was collected from 120 students who are studying at this City Campus. Subjects were randomly selected for the survey which consisted of the students from Faculty of Science and Faculty of Non Science. The questionnaire developed by Shazali & Hanim,(2012) was being used to study the motivation in outdoor recreation activity for Science and Non Science students at University Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia. The data was analyzed using the non-parametric measure by Mann Whitney U Test. Result indicated that the subject highly agreed that the main motivation for outdoor recreation participation for Private City Campus University in Kuala Lumpur for the Faculty of Science are the Accessibility to the Recreation Area, Healthy and As a Necessities of Life. For the subjects from the Faculty of Non Science, they are looking for New Experience, Enjoy the Nature and Looking for Self Confident. The conclusion is that the value of outdoor natural environment is seen important by the subject and they enjoy participating in outdoor recreation activities in order to enrich the value in the student life for self-development.

Keywords

Participation Motive, Outdoor Recreation

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2865
Teaching Approaches in the Classroom among Preschool Teachers
Author(s): Mardziah Abdullah, Mariani Md Nor, Fonny Damaety, Jain Chee      Pages: [748-755]
Abstract

This study aimed to explore the teaching approaches preschool teachers based on management aspects of teaching in the classroom. This study is a case study, of qualitative nature. A total of four preschool teachers were involved at Negeri Sembilan under Ministry of Education. Data were collected through interviews protocol, the protocol of observation and analysis of the contents of documents in duration of four months. The data are based on the recommendations of Miles & Huberman (1994). The results showed that pre-school teachers mastered the management of the administrative aspects of teaching but do not have clear understanding of teaching approaches and the integration of all the aspects in teaching from KSPK.

Keywords

Teaching approaches, Preschool Teachers, KSPK, Integration Aspects, Management

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2843
Comparison of Serum Uric Acid and Gamma-Glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) Level in Obese Individuals and Non-Obese Individual
Author(s): Yusmi Mohd Yunus, Winsy Muniandy, Henkie Isahwan Lai      Pages: [756-769]
Abstract

Obesity is usually accompanied by excess presence of adipose tissue in the body which could cause excess xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) production. Uric acid levels can increase with an excess of XOR production. Increased body fat also promotes fat deposition in the liver. Excess fat deposition induces the release of abundant reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting in oxidative stress. Thus, this promotes an increase in serum gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) level, which has potential anti-oxidative stress properties. This study aimed to identify the changes on serum uric acid and GGT level with association to waist to hip ratio (WHR) circumference in obese and non-obese individuals. A total number of 30 individuals aged between 20-45 years old participated. Data was analyzed using Mann Whitney U test and Spearman’s rho test which was considered statistically significant at P<0.05. The variables in both male and female obese and non-obese individuals, the result shows significant, positive correlation even though all the variables showed positive correlation for both groups of obese and non-obese individuals, the strength of the relationship in obese individuals was much stronger than non-obese individuals. In the conclusion, increment of serum uric acid and GGT level were related with increased value of BMI and WHR as shown in previous studies.

Keywords

Serum uric acid, Gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT), Body mass index (BMI), Waist to hip (WHR) Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR), Obesity

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2844
The Influence of Value Orientation and Mindset among Orang Asli Parents Regarding Education
Author(s): Nurasyikin Ghazali, Mustaffa Omar, Sharina Abdul Halim, Nor Haidanadia Hasni      Pages: [770-780]
Abstract

Various programs have been executed by the government to enhance the educational achievement of Orang Asli. As the result, 693 Orang Asli students successful graduated in IPTA from 2001 until 2010. However, there are Orang Asli students still shackled dropout problem and the absence of students in their schools. Before this, people often pay attention to the infrastructure aspects to address problem arising in improving their achievement in education. Another aspect that needs attention is through their behavior based on the value orientation and mindset. This study aims to identify the values orientation and mindset of Orang Kanaq and Orang Kuala parents regarding to education. The underlying value orientation of Orang Kanaq and Kuala parents based on ten theory of value by Schwartz (2012) self-direction, stimulation, hedonisms, power, security, conformity, tradition, benevolence, achievement and universalism. While mindset is based on two types of mindset by (2010), fixed and growth mindset. Further, the result indicates that every community are different in their value orientation and mindset. Research on the diversity that exist in the value systems and mindset able to help us explain why there are different in achievement and progress among members in social group. In a short, although many programs and training have been done by various government for Orang Asli, but this kind of activity need to be undertaken and strengthened to ensure their sustainability. Therefore, in order to devise education programs for Orang Asli, mindset and orientation value in education not negligible.

Keywords

Value, Mindset, Orang Asli, Education.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2845
Abstract

Each development scheme will surely have a development actor(s). In both, Islamic-based and conventional development theories, the actors are humans. However, the function of humans as actors in both these theories differs. Thus, what is the function of humans as development actors in the conventional development theory? Is it in line with the Quranic Worldview? In order to answer these two questions, this working paper had two main objectives. First, to determine the function of humans as development actors in the conventional development theory. Second, to analyse the function of humans as development actors in the conventional development theory based on the Quranic worldview. This study, which used document research and the content analysis method, found that in the conventional development theory, humans were valued for their physical ability and not their spiritual aspect. This theory treats humans as pseudo-humans or incomplete humans. It only refers to physical strength, productivity and the human mind while ignoring the spiritual aspects, such as faith (iman) and God-consciousness (taqwa). This clearly contradicts human functions based on the Quranic worldview, which presumes humans to be the subject and khalifah of Allah SWT.

Keywords

Development actor, conventional development, Quranic worldview

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2846
A Review Theory of Transformational Leadership for School
Author(s): Marenee Lin Tengi, Mahaliza Mansor, Zahari Hashim      Pages: [792-799]
Abstract

Transformational theory has been widely used in school leadership system in Malaysia. Transformational leadership style influences the development and success of a school. This article discusses the theories of transformational that are often used in a study of leadership of leaders of schools in Malaysia.

Keywords

Transformational, Leadership, Schools, Educational, Organization

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2847
Reasoning Methods based on the Science of Mantiq for Islamic Research Methodology
Author(s): Shahir Akram Hassan      Pages: [800-812]
Abstract

In the context of this paper, the process of reasoning refers to the shift in thinking from assumed-to-be-true statements to true statements. This is also commonly known as logic. Logic is a science that can be used as the fundamental in doing research. If an Islamic Research methodology is to be invented, what are the appropriate reasoning methods? Can logic be used or are there more appropriate reasoning methods stemming from the Islamic Tradition? Based on the above questions, this paper tried to examine the Mantiq (Islamic logic) reasoning method for Islamic Research Methodology. This study has two main objectives. First, to identify the reasoning methods in Mantiq. Second, to analyse the application of the Mantiq reasoning method as a method of reasoning in Islamic-related research. To achieve these objectives, this study utilizes the qualitative method via library research to obtain secondary data regarding Mantiq reasoning methods through a thorough examination of works on Mantiq. Thereafter, the Mantiq reasoning method is analysed as a reasoning method in Islamic-related research using textual analysis. The study found that there are at least eight Mantiq reasoning methods. First, the method to the introduction of knowledge. Second, the three stages of reasoning method. Third, describing something through ’alfaz, mafahum and masadaq method. Fourth, getting-a-holistic-view through nisbah. Fifth, defining a method based on Mantiq. Sixth, the method of constructing statements and propositions that is true through tasdiq. Seventh, the method of evaluating statements and propositions that is true or false through taqabal and ‘akas. Eighth, the methods of yaqin, zann, shakk and batil as a method of measurement in research and Islamic knowledge. The results of this study show that the application of Mantiq reasoning methods in Islamic-related research can be used as one of the reasoning methods in the construction of Islamic Research Methodology related to Islam and Moslems.

Keywords

Social Research, Mantiq, Reasoning Methods, Islamic Research Methodology

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2848
The Economic Views of Syeikh Muhammad Arsyad Al-Banjari Regarding Zakat: An Analysis of the Sabil Al-Muhtadin Text
Author(s): Muhammad Yusri Yusof@Salleh, NoorAileen binti Ibrahim, Rahimin Affandi Abd Rahim, Mohd Zahirwan Halim bin Zainal Abidin, Paiz Hassan, Muhd Imran Abd Razak, Muhd Imran Abd Razak      Pages: [813-821]
Abstract

Syeikh Muhammad Arsyad al-Banjari was a renowned Islamic scholar in the Malay Archipelago. He was born in Borneo. According to Sheikh Wan Mohd Shaghir bin Abdullah, Syeikh Muhammad Arsyad al-Banjari was born in the village of Lok Gabang, Martapura, Banjarmasin. He was not just a much sought after religious scholar but he was also a prolific writer of a diverse range of subjects. One of his most highly regarded works was Sabil al-Muhtadin which discusses numerous aspects related to fiqh in a pragmatic manner which later became a source of reference and guide to students and Islamic scholars in the Archipelago. This paper will discuss the views of this renowned scholar on economy particularly regarding aspects related to fiqh and zakat in Sabil al-Muhtadin.

Keywords

Economy, zakat, Sabil al-Muhtadin, Syeikh Muhammad Arsyad al-Banjari, scholar of Borneo

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2849
Survival of the Pondok Learning Institution in Malaysia
Author(s): Mohd Zahirwan Halim Bin Zainal Abidin, Pisol Bin Maidin, Muhammad Yusri bin Yusof@ Salleh, Paiz Bin Hassan, Abd.Munir Mohd Noh, Muhd Imran Abd. Razak      Pages: [822-830]
Abstract

The pondok is Malaysia's earliest traditional Islamic learning institution. Its contributions, especially in the development of Islamic education in Malaysia specifically and Southeast Asia in general, cannot be denied. The pondok institution is an Islamic learning institution that has become an integral part of the Malay community and operates steadfastly despite facing numerous challenges due to the changing times and globalisation. The objective of this research is: To study the history of pondok institution in Malaysia and to identify the steps that have been taken to preserve the pondok institution as an Islamic learning institution in Malaysia. This research will fully apply library research, by referring to books, journal articles and proceeding papers. The findings of this research will show that the pondok institution has garnered attention from various parties, including the government in ensuring the continuity of these institutions in Islamic education in Malaysia. The pondok institution has its own importance in spreading the teachings of Islam, as well as in Islamic education, though it faces numerous challenges especially in today's modernised world of education. It is evident that the efforts carried out to ensure these institutions remain strong as a champion of Islamic education for the Malay community, especially in ensuring the survival of the pondok institution, is continued to this day. This is considering the fact that for generations, the pondok institution has contributed to intellectual activities, the spread of the religious and the development of Islamic knowledge to the Islamic community in general.

Keywords

Survival, continuity, pondok, Malaysia, today

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2850
Junshi: A Daily Kaizen activity of Lean Production Management
Author(s): Kamal S. K., Nurul Fadly Habidin      Pages: [831-835]
Abstract

Lean production management is a proven success practice of cutting waste and giving value to the automotive industry for years. However, lean implementation faced various obstacles related to human aspects such as the lack of knowledge of daily kaizen practices for process improvement related to daily production activities especially the Malaysian automotive industries. This study aims to find the significant values or factors for the successful implementation of the lean management, an analysis of the integration between factor of human-related practices of lean philosophical culture such as kaizen, teamwork, and respect for people in Toyota way as moderating effects towards achieving lean management sustainability and success factor towards the success of implementation of lean production management with a proposed theoretical framework and variables under incentives, behaviors, and operations.

Keywords

Lean culture, Lean Production Management, Toyota way, Daily kaizen, Creativity

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2851
Element of Citizenship in Education System in Malaysia
Author(s): Sitti Hasnah Bandu, Mohd Mahzan Awang, Abdul Razak Ahmad      Pages: [836-841]
Abstract

This article discusses the element of citizenship in the education system in Malaysia. The role of citizenship is very important to establish a sovereign country, especially for a country that has many races and ethnicities such as in Malaysia. The issue of citizenship is not only exists in the country but also abroad. However, this article only includes discussions on elements of citizenship in the Malaysian education system through the subjects in the curriculum introduced such as the subjects of History, Moral Education, Islamic Studies, Economics, and Civics and Citizenship Education (PSK). The various elements of citizenship as set forth in Malaysian education system through the subjects have caused confusion about the meaning of citizenship in the context of education in Malaysia. This article also reviews previous studies relevant to the element of citizenship in the education system in Malaysia. This article focuses on and includes the element of citizenship in the education system in Malaysia. This article also discusses proposals for each of the concerned issues to improve the competence of knowledge about citizenship among students and teachers in the education system in Malaysia.

Keywords

Citizenship, Education, Ethnicity, Competencies, Knowledge

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2852
Elements of Patriotism in “Pahlawan Pasir Salak” Novel
Author(s): Maizatul Akma Aziz, Nik Rafidah Nik Mohamad Affendi, Halis Azhan Mohd Hanafiah, Kamariah Kamarudin, Kamariah Kamarudin      Pages: [842-850]
Abstract

This study focuses on the elements of patriotism in the novel "Pahlawan Pasir Salak" by Mohd Ismail Sarbini. This novel is a compulsory Bahasa Melayu text used as a Literature Component for Form Two. The setting of this novel is during the British Colonial Era. There are seven elements of patriotism adopted as the basis for the study which are Personal Patriotism, Official Patriotism, Icon Patriotism, Symbolic Patriotism, Capital Patriotism, Environment Patriotism and Symbolic Nationalists Patriotism. According to the study, the personal, icons, symbolic nationalist as well as capital patriotism is found to be very dorminant through the characters and certain events occurring in this novel. These patriotism elements are very important to be instilled in the next generation of our country that is emerging in the golden era for the betterment of the nation.

Keywords

Element, Novel, Komsas,Types of Patriotism, Patriotism

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2859
Food Security among Orang Kintak in Pengkalan Hulu, Perak
Author(s): Nor Haidanadia Hasni, Sharina Abdul Halim, Mustaffa Omar, Nurasyikin Ghazali      Pages: [851-866]
Abstract

Orang Asli Kintak settlements are vulnerable to logging and mining, which also affect the food security. Based on these problems, the objective of this paper is to measure the level of food security among Aboriginal Kintak. This paper uses a questionnaire of 42 Orang Asli villages Kintak in Bukit Asu, Perak. Food security level is measured based on four main components of food security by FAO, namely food availability, food accessibility, food utilization and stability of food. The results showed Kintak dealing with a low level of food security, namely 54.3% (23 family), of which 40.5% level of food availability, food accessibility levels are very low at 73.8%, 40.5% of food consumption levels and stability of food supply level of 49.5%. Accessibility factor/(access), are the main factors threatening food insecurity among Aboriginal Kintak. Formerly, Aboriginal Kintak live in settlements that are surrounded by forests rich source of food and medicines. However, a variety of land-clearing activities that occurred have reduced the availability of food sources, causing more restricted/difficult access to them. A balanced and an adequate diet plays an important role in maintaining health and preventing disease and improving quality of life and the human capital of a community.

Keywords

Food Security, Aboriginal Kintak, Logging, Mining, Food Accessibility

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2860
Sarawak Malay Language in Poem
Author(s): Hamsiah Juki      Pages: [867-883]
Abstract

This study discusses one of the art forms in the Sarawak Malay society namely the Language in the Sarawak Malay Poem in the linguistic perspective. The aspect focused on, is the language found in the Sarawak Malay poem. The results of observations of the material found that the poem created or uttered spontaneously and naturally it is useful as a means to entertain, educate and to criticize societal behaviour. By their very nature, poems are entertainment and leisure. Based on analysis of the material, submissions made in the objectives of the study was to study the artistic language of the Sarawak Malay poem, identify the poem as materials related to language, literature and culture of the traditional Malays in the state of Sarawak, identify the language contents from the angle of beauty of form, the structure of the poetic Malay Sarawak poem and explain the content, flow, attitude, characteristic and philosophy in Sarawak Malay poem. An analysis was also conducted on assumption of the community on poems through 27 ethnic groups in Sarawak who have languages, way of life and different cultures. Settlements on the coast comprising of Malays and Melanau. Settlements in the river valley comptising of the Iban, Bidayuh and Kenyah. Settlements in the interior comprising of the Kelabit, Penan and Murut. Pattern of settlements and scattered communities which are dispersed cause the Sarawak communities to be in less contact with outsiders and, thus forming a distinctive respective cultural identities depending on the environment. It is to be noted that in the fields of culture and art, especially that involves language, literature and culture undergo changes from time to time. Traditional poems that accompany most traditional cultural presentations such as Sarawak poetry, folk songs, games, dances, religious ceremonies and ritual rites and customs are increasingly marginalized in public conversations.

Keywords

Malay Poem, Sarawak, language, Culture

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2861
Dust Explosion Incidents in Malaysia for Powder Manufacturing Industries
Author(s): Mohd Azimie Ahmad, Norazura Ismail, Mohamad Rizza Othman      Pages: [884-889]
Abstract

The trends of process safety incident have been put in the statistical research and development in order to prevent and mitigate the phenomenon. One of the incident are known as dust explosion that represent a constant hazard to industries including any manufacturing using and handling of combustible dust materials. Lack of sharing and know how on best practices in managing the workplace to avoid this phenomenon happening throughout the industries. The severity and the consequences of not practicing it before it happen were not been fore seen by the process team until it too late. This present paper discusses the best practices in managing the hazards from the catastrophes to be happening again. In addition, the mitigation response was also be explored thoroughly by database of best practices.

Keywords

Process Safety Incident, Dust explosion, best practices, database, mitigation

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2956
Analysis of Teaching Practice Assessment Methods for Pre-Service Teachers
Author(s): Syaiful Anwar Yahya, Rosnidar Mansor, Mohd Hassan Abdullah      Pages: [890-903]
Abstract

During the teaching practice, assessment of pre-service teachers’ performance by the institution supervisors and school mentors are the key elements during their placement. The goal of this paper focuses on the assessment methods used nowadays to evaluate the pre-service teachers during teaching practice. This article adopted the narrative overviews’ method which also known as a unsystematic narrative review that comprehensively syntheses previously published article journal on teaching practice assessment method. From the literature that has been studied, the were two categories of assessment methods and eight type of assessment methods that can be used to evaluate pre-service teacher during teaching practice. Discussion of the strengths and limitations of each assessment methods for teaching practice during will be discussed in the final part of this paper. This article has the potential to contribute to the field of education. Specifically, this research will contribute to the assessment of teaching practice’s field because there is less literature available locally on assessment for teaching practice.

Keywords

Pre-Service Teacher, Teaching Practice Assessment, Teaching Practicum Assessment

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2957