International Journal of Academic Research in Economics and Management Sciences


Volume 6, Issue 1 (January, 2017)

Role of Social Networks in University Based Business Incubators in Promoting Entrepreneurship Growth in Kenya
Author(s): Kevin Wachira, Patrick Ngugi, Romanus Odhiambo Otieno      Pages: [1-14]

Entrepreneurs are widely recognized as the prime movers of economic development; the people who translate ideas into action. The government of Kenya has initiated numerous programs and policies to support entrepreneurship growth in Kenya. For instance, it has undertaken policy reviews that have led to reduction of the required licenses to start and operate a business. It has initiated several monetary funds to assist entrepreneurs, particularly youth and women, obtain financing for their enterprises i.e. the Youth Enterprise Fund, Women Enterprise Fund and Uwezo Fund. Private sector players such as commercial Banks, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), Microfinance Institutions (MFIs) and Savings and Credit Co-operatives Societies (SACCOs) among others have also come up with formal financial support schemes for entrepreneurs. However the start- up failure rate is still very high and the desired growth levels are yet to be achieved. Consequently some scholars and policy makers have turned to business incubators and particularly university based business incubators as a possible boost to entrepreneurship growth through nurturing start-ups. A major area in the operation of an incubator is the social networks created among incuatees themselves and other external parties outside of the incubator. Literature reviewed indicates that incubators play the role of networking facilitator. This study aimed to find out the role of social networks in university based business incubators on entrepreneurship growth in Kenya. The six active university based business incubators in Kenya were investigated with a specific focus on all the fifty nine graduated incubatees from the said incubators. Census technique was used given that the total number of all graduated incubatees (59) could be adequately studied. The study used a semi structured questionnaire as the main tool of data collection. A combination of tools was used to analyze the data because whereas some aspects of the study were qualitative others were of a quantitative nature. Quantitative data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 21 software through descriptive statistics; measures of central tendency (mean and mode), measures of dispersion (standard deviation and variance) and inferential statistics. Thematic analysis was used for qualitative data. The study found out that social networks have a significant positive effect on entrepreneurship growth. An improvement in social networks would lead to an 81% improvement on entrepreneurship growth. The study recommends that in order to create wider social networks for incubatees, university based business incubators need to reach out more to industry players and the already successful entrepreneurs.


Business incubation, University based business incubator, Social network, Entrepreneurship growth

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJAREMS/v6-i1/2558
Workplace Bullying as a Predictor of Intention to Leave among Workers at the Industrial Organizations in Jordan
Author(s): Bahjat Eid Al- Jawazneh, Ziad Moh'd. Ali Smadi      Pages: [15-39]

The major purpose of this study is to find out if workplace bullying can be a predictor to the intention to leave at industrial companies in one of the most important industrial estates in Jordan, which is the Alhasan industrial Estate. The study employed the descriptive and analytical methodologies in order to arrive at sufficient answers for its main problem. Primary data of the study came from a questionnaire which was designed for said purpose, and workplace bullying was measured using two sub-scales, namely work-related bullying and person-related bullying. The Negative Acts Questionnaire (NAQ) of Einarsen et al. (2001) and Einarsen and Raknes (1997) was adopted. With regard to the intention to leave items, researchers utilized the studies of Glambek et al. (2014) and Djurkovic et al. (2008). Questionnaires were distributed to 34 industrial companies. The major findings of this study are as follows: The level of presence of work-related bullying at the industrial organization in Jordan is high, while person-related bullying is medium and workplace bullying predicts only 6.7% of the intention to leave among the respondents of the study.


Workplace Bullying, Intention to Leave, Industrial Organizations, Jordan

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJAREMS/v6-i1/2559
The Effect of Business Cycles' Fluctuations on Bank Profitability: The Case Study on Iran Melli Bank (1992-2014)
Author(s): Rafik Nazarian, Azade Mehrabian, Brjang Moradi, Leila Sedighikamal      Pages: [40-51]

Regarding the analysis and stability of both fiscal and banking sectors, the link between business cycles’ fluctuations and banks’ profitability has been highly underscored up to this point. Macroeconomics conditions can impact banks’ performance, thereby they are possible to affect other economic sectors too. The present paper, based on Arellano and Bond (1991) GMM model, examines the impact of macroeconomic variables on Iran Melli Bank’s profitability. Paper’s respective data were extracted from Iran Melli Bank’s balance sheets and Iranian Central Bank temporal series data for the period of 1992-2014. Research findings demonstrate that there is a significant relation between business cycles’ fluctuations and Iran Melli Bank’s profitability, accordingly, in addition to downsizing itself for gaining more profits, it should consider investment and and the quality of its production for recession era and also improve its state of liquidity for the boom period.


Business Cycles, Bank Profitability, GMM (Generalised Method of Moments)

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJAREMS/v6-i1/2560
Organizational Commitment of the Employees of the Ports Security Affairs of the State of Kuwait: The Impact of Human Recourses Management Practices
Author(s): Sulieman Ibraheem Shelash Al- Hawary, Hamad Mohammad Ali Alajmi      Pages: [52-78]

The aim of the study was to explore the impact of human resource management practices on organizational commitment of the Ports Security Affairs of the State of Kuwait. The HRM practices applied in this study were human resource planning, recruitment and selection, rewards and incentives, training and development, and performance appraisal. Organizational commitment dimensions used in this study were affective commitment, normative commitment and continuance commitment. All managerial employees working in the Ports Security Affairs of Kuwait were included in the study sample. A questionnaire-based survey was used to collect data. In order to test study hypotheses, relevant statistical procedures were used. The result showed an average rate of HRM practices adoption. The significant impact of HRM practices (human resource planning, recruitment and selection, rewards and incentives, and performance appraisal) on organizational commitment were supported. Consequently, the research recommends keeping an eye on employees’ positive interaction while performing job tasks as well as their participation in decision making and making organization’s public policy.


HRM Practices, Organizational Commitment, the Ports Security Affairs, Kuwait.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJAREMS/v6-i1/2570
The Relationship between Establishment of Knowledge Management and Self-efficacy among Principals of Boys' State High Schools in Tehran
Author(s): Alireza Chenari, Reza Rafati, Ali Asghar Mogaveri, Akram Dehbashi      Pages: [79-92]

The present study aims to investigate the potential relationship between the establishment of knowledge management and the self-efficacy among the principals of boys' state high schools in Tehran. This study was conducted within a descriptive framework through correlations and the statistical population included the principals of boys' state High schools in Tehran (204 individuals). From the mentioned population, 140 individuals were selected for this study based on Morgan's sample size table and through cluster and stratified sampling methods. The instruments used for this study included two researcher-made questionnaires which aimed to investigated self-efficacy and meta-cognition. The validity of the questionnaires was evaluated and confirmed through investigating theoretical principles as well as the comments provided by the experts and professors in the field and the reliability of the questionnaires was obtained though a pilot study. The data were analyzed by SPSS.16 through Pearson correlation coefficient as well as multiple regression and one-way ANOVA. The results of the data analysis revealed a significant relationship between establishment of knowledge management and self-efficacy among the principals. The results also indicated that there is a significant relationship between knowledge management elements and self-efficacy. Multiple regression was used for examining the predicting power of independent variables for dependent variables. According to the findings, organizing the specialized working teams could be mentioned as the most effective factor for improving the self-efficacy among the school principals. The potential implications and recommendations for the future studies are discusses in the last section.


Knowledge Management, Self-Efficacy, Principals

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJAREMS/v6-i1/2571
Organizational Culture and Business Performance: An Empirical Investigation in the Pakistani Context
Author(s): Waheed Ali Umrani, Syed Mir Muhammad Shah, Pervaiz Ahmed Memon, Altaf Hussain Samo      Pages: [93-107]

This study investigates the postulated relationship between organizational culture and business performance in the banking sector in Pakistan. The necessity of the assessment of this relationship is driven on the basis of the past literature. For the present inquiry, using the survey method a total number of 265 questionnaires were received from middle managers in the big five banks in Pakistan. The population was drawn using stratified random sampling technique. The Smart-PLS 3.0 was used for data analysis due to its increasing popularity in presenting authentic calculations. The reporting of the results is based on Smart-PLS standards that is followed by two-step approach: first the assessment of reliability and validity is conducted using measurement model and secondly assessment of hypothesed relationship is done using structural model. This study underlines that organizational culture has significant relationship with business performance in the banking industry in Pakistan. In the last section the insights on future research are provided.


Business Performance; Organizational Culture; Banks, Pakistan

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJAREMS/v6-i1/2575

Stock markets are considered as a measure of the economy, in which the condition of the stock exchange indicates the general development of the production sector. Nowadays, the importance of the stock exchange market is regarded among the most important financial tools, especially on the light of the Globalization and the new world order. Economists consider the exchanges as a mirror which reflects the reality of the conditions of the listed firms. While those exchanges had been the source of wealth for some investors, they had been the source of misery and bankruptcy of others, which can be ascribed to the high volatility at those exchanges (Esam, 2007). Organized Stock markets play a vital role in the recruitment of resources and savings, and their investment, as well as the role they play in the development of economy, and their contribution to attracting foreign and local investments. It can be said also that the success of economic reform programs depends on the presence of an active stock market, which extends and develops the exchange of stocks within an organized market.


Stock Exchange, Indicators, Turnover Ratio

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJAREMS/v6-i1/2582

This study sought to evaluate the effect of job design on labor mobility intentions of teaching personnel in Teachers Service Commission (TSC) Tertiary Institutions in Kenya. The limitation was that one factor was researched on hence not fully representative. Beneficiaries were government, other scholars, TSC and school managers. This study adopted descriptive research design. The target population was from all the TSC teachers in the TSC Tertiary institutions in Kenya. The study did stratified random sampling of institutions, 356 sample size was used. Questionnaires collected data. Questionnaires collected data. A pilot study of 36questionnaires was done to determine reliability and validity which was verified when all variables had a Cronbach Alpha of 0.7 and above while the content validity of the instrument was determined by seeking credible opinion of the study supervisors. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used and reporting was done through tables and figures. The response rate was 80%. The results revealed a significant negative relationship between job design and labour mobility intentions. The study encourages scholars to use same variable or more to test results in different industries. It also recommended that Kenyan government addresses some of the issues highlighted to ensure a motivated workforce to attract and retain more teaching personnel who will not desire to quit.


Job design, Labour mobility intentions, Teacher Service Commission (TSC), Tertiary institutions

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJAREMS/v6-i1/2584