International Journal of Academic Research in Economics and Management Sciences


Volume 6, Issue 2 (April, 2017)

Applied Econometrics and the Determinants of Economic Growth
Author(s): Mahmud A. Mansaray      Pages: [1-34]

The purpose of the current research was the exploration of macroeconomic determinants of economic growth in post-conflict Sierra Leone for the period, 2002-2013, and whether the association between the determinants and economic growth is long-term and short-term. The research methodology was quantitative, and the dataset was time series with 48 observations and 7 variables. Applying the AR(2) model, the findings revealed foreign direct investment, gross capital formation, inflation, real interest rate, real exchange rate, population growth rate, and trade openness were significant determinants of economic growth. In addition, applying the Phillips-Ouliaris cointegration model, the findings revealed a statistically significant long-run association between economic growth and its determinants (Rho = -16.456, Tau = -3.240, p < .05). Furthermore, the error correction model (errorECM1) applied to determine the short-run deviation from the long-run had the expected sign, but was statistically insignificant (?errorECM1 = -.1646, SE = .1331, t = -1.24, p = .2237), indicating the adjustment towards equilibrium occurred in the same period under review. However, the research was limited to 12 post-conflict years (2002-2013), which may be insufficient to realize the complete determinant of economic growth. Subsequent studies must include additional years and variables to realize a comprehensive impact on growth.


Applied Econometrics, Macroeconomic Variables, Economic Growth, Real Exchange Rate, and Real Interest Rate

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJAREMS/v6-i2/2783
Effects of Credit Card Incentives on Consumer Borrowing In Kenya: A Case of Commercial Banks in Kenya
Author(s): Joyce Mwende, Muturi Wachira, Evans Amata      Pages: [35-43]

Financial institutions have mainly relied on incentive programs as their main strategic driver to increase electronic payments, such as through use of credit cards. Credit cards have been globally acclaimed for their benefits that range from their ability to ensure tax-compliance, security, instant cash and their ability to facilitate settlement of cross-border transactions. However, there exists a great challenge of credit card usage, such as ease of accumulation of debts and high interest charges. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of credit card incentives on consumer borrowing in Kenya. The study employed a descriptive study approach using a sample size of 18 commercial banks offering credit card services. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect information. Credit card incentives were found to be a major contributor to credit card uptake. The study also found that most banks used incentives such as rewards for repeated use, low interest rates, traveling awards and benefits to influence the spending behavior of their clients. The study found credit card also affected spending behavior. It is concluded that credit card incentives can be effectively used by banks to increase use of credit cards. It is recommended that financial institutions should educated their customers on how to use their credit cards so that they do not fall into a debt trap.


Incentives, Credit Cards, Consumer Spending, Consumer Borrowing, Consumer Indebtedness

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJAREMS/v6-i2/2784
Factors Affecting Lecturer Job Satisfaction: Case of Vietnam Universities
Author(s): Pham Thi Lien      Pages: [138-148]

This paper studies factors affecting lecturer job satisfaction in some universities in Vietnam. The study uses data collected from the questionnaire survey with 167 responses. As a result, three out of six variables (including Salary and Fringe benefits, Recognition, and Communiation) have influential relationship with lecturer job satisfaction in the linear regression analysis. The paper also gives some recommendations for the universities to improve its policies and working environment to enhance lecturer job satisfaction level.


Job satisfaction, Lecturer satisfaction, Vietnam

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJAREMS/v6-i2/2810
Effect of the Components of Information Technology adoption on Employees Performance of Interior Ministry of Kuwait State
Author(s): Sulieman Ibraheem Shelash Al-Hawary, Mohammad Faraj Saket AlDafiri      Pages: [149-169]

This study aimed to examine the adoption of the information technology elements on Employees Performance of Interior Ministry of Kuwait State, the elements of information technology variables represented by (hardware, software, databases, networks, and the human element), the study population consisted of managers in the Interior Ministry of Kuwait State, and has been used comprehensive method of the population, and the researcher used the questionnaire to collect data of the study. And researcher used statistical tests in order to analyze questionnaire, answer the study questions and testing of hypotheses. And the researcher found that there a statistically significant effect at the level of significance (?? 0.05) for the adoption of information technology elements represented by (hardware, software, data bases, and the human element) on Employees Performance of Interior Ministry of Kuwait State. The researcher finds that the investment in information technology is an important tool in enhancing performance, since the interest and investment in technology elements helps to connect the various administrative functions with each other and to eliminate duplication and reduce errors and effort, which contributes to increased productivity and lead to administrative decisions better, and more efficient processes which improves the performance of employees. Based on results the researcher recommended to work continuously to updated IT infrastructure development of information permanently and continuously commensurate with the nature off the work to increase the capacity to increase the service request to enable the Ministry to shift to e-government.


Information Technology, Employees, Performance, Interior Ministry, Kuwait.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJAREMS/v6-i2/2811
The Importance of Strategic Marketing Planning in accessing European Funds in Tourism
Author(s): Anamaria – Catalina Radu, Raluca Florentina Tita, Alexandra Pricop, Ana- Maria Bacsis      Pages: [170-177]

Technological developments in recent years have led to changes in several fields. In this situation, a number of companies were forced to reorganise their strategies and use their skills to face the increasingly stronger competition. Studies conducted earlier in the literature have shown that organisations can succeed on the market if they are permanently preoccupied to improve its organisational structure, strategies, staff and processes. Strategic planning plays a very important role in companies, serving to improve processes carried out in enterprises. This paper aims to study how EU funds for tourism were allocated through the Regional Operational Programme in the development regions in the country and how strategic planning can be used in this area to facilitate absorption and to ensure that the results have a strong impact in the country.


European Funds, Regional Development, Services Marketing, Tourism Marketing.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJAREMS/v6-i2/2812
Socio-religious perspective, consumer’s product awareness and consumer acceptance level of Islamic Financing
Author(s): Hamid Salman, Muhammad Naveed, Ahsan Nazir      Pages: [178-192]

The study indented to determine the influence of socio-religious intentions & product awareness on consumer acceptance level toward Islamic financing services with mediating role of consumer perception among the bank customers from academic sector of Lahore, Pakistan. The study utilized survey method for data collection and by using convenience sampling collected valid 300 responses from academic sector bank customers. Structural equation path modelling algorithm technique was used to determine association within the selected constructs through the use of Partial least Square (PLS)- Smart PLS 3 software as it effectively estimates measurement model and structural model simultaneously (Ringle et al., 2005). The results indicates all independent variables (socio- religious perspective, product awareness and perception have significant direct effect on consumer acceptance level whereas study also revealed that consumer perception play only one significant mediating role on the association between consumer’s product awareness and consumer acceptance level of Islamic financial services. In conclusion Study highlight the importance of consumer’s product awareness, banker’s get favorable influence on consumer perception through increasing the consumer’s product awareness which further provide aid to managers by referring them vital change in consumer behavior, attitude and willingness to purchase or utilize the Islamic banking services. Study will be helpful for both policy makers and practitioners as it spreads useful innovative understanding regarding consumer acceptance.


Socio-religious Perspective, Awareness, Perception, Consumer acceptance, Partial Least Square (PLS).

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJAREMS/v6-i2/2814
Lessons learned from Inflation Targeting
Author(s): Abdelkader Aguir      Pages: [193-200]

This paper analyzes the policy of targeting inflation in emerging economies. More specifically, the development of this work aims to study the effectiveness and the performance of this strategy of monetary policy in the emerging economies. The analysis of the efficiency and performance of the inflation targeting policy of emerging economies performs well through a stable macroeconomic environment (GDP and inflation rate). The results show a significant difference in inflation performance and macroeconomic performance in an economic environment characterized by high volatility in macroeconomic indicators.


Inflation Targeting, Emerging Economies, Stability.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJAREMS/v6-i2/2943
Youngsters’ Opinions on Health, Health Tourism and Balneotherapy Tourism

The way in which health is managed by demand agents needs to be thoroughly analysed, all the more so as this phenomenon represents an increasingly stronger stake for many audiences; the profound understanding of health, and the consequences of its management gradually leads to the branching of the concept, its physical, moral and social implications being intertwined with a vast area of aspects of life. The results of this study reflect how health is understood and managed by young people, but also their reporting to health tourism, with an emphasis on the consumption of balneotherapy tourism products; therefore, a quantitative marketing research was carried out on a sample of 129 people, aged 18-24, between December 2015 and May 2016, to determine how health is perceived and understood, and the opinions of young people regarding its treatment in balneotherapy destinations in Romania.


Health, Health Marketing, Health Tourism, Balneotherapy Tourism

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJAREMS/v6-i2/3012

This study aimed to identify the relationship between organizational climate and organizational change at company rustic Sonelgaz distribution in Bechar Algeria. The a users in " Sonelgaz Foundation was chosen as a sample of them reached their size (105) customer, for completion of this study, we prepared a questionnaire composed of three sections: Devoted the first part of personal information, the second of them Factors affecting organizational climate of 12 questions, and Part III;organizational change consists of (07) question, was this relationship is tested using spss 20 statistical program , The purpose of the study has been to consolidate, synthesize and critique the empirical studies that have examined the relationship between organizational climate, and organizational performance


Organizational Climate, Organizational Change, Performance

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJAREMS/v6-i2/2858
An Empirical Re-Examination of the Islamic Banking Performance in Indonesia
Author(s): Abdul Hamid, M. Shabri Abd. Majid, Lilis Khairunnisah      Pages: [219-232]

This study empirically re-examines the effects of bank-specific and macroeconomic determinants on the profitability of nine Islamic banks in Indonesia during the period 2009-2015. Four specific bank variables (i.e., the size of the bank, adequacy capital ratio, concentration ratio, non-performing financing), and three macroeconomic variables (i.e., economic growth, interest rate, and inflation) were, respectively, examined using the Generalised Least Squares (GLS) model. The study documented that the size of the bank, adequacy capital ratio, and economic growth positively contributed to the profitability of the Islamic banks. Meanwhile, the concentration ratio, interest rate, and inflation negatively influenced the profitability of the Islamic banks in the country. These findings implied that to enhance their profitability, the banks should increase their market shares and provide adequate capital ratio and run under the higher level of national economic growth. Additionally, ensuring the stability of interest rate and price level as well as promoting the awareness on the importance of having interest-free transaction for the Muslim via the Islamic banking institutions should be considered as strategic policies to promote the profitability as well as to enhance the competitiveness of the Islamic banks in the biggest Muslim populous country, Indonesia.


Performance; Banks’ Specific Characteristics, Macroeconomic Determinants, Islamic Banking Institutions, Generalized Least-Square, INDONESIA.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJAREMS/v6-i2/3022
The Dilemma of Child Labor Practice in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea
Author(s): Nigel Kama, Budi Eko Soetjipto, Puji Handayati      Pages: [233-244]

Child Labor is a controversial issues practiced in many developing countries. It is not a new phenomenon and has been observed over decades that, economic, society, culture and poverty forces poor families to send their children to work, which results in a serious problems. Child labor can leave many severe consequences on children and their families. In addition to that, children usually work to contribute and provide financial support to their families. This research paper provides child labor predicament in Port Moresby and their activities. Data has been collected from participants in Port Moresby including 2 Teachers, 5 Child Laborer, 5 Community/Society Leaders, 5 Parents and 1 company officer. The results from this study explain the reasons which forces children to work financial constraints, cultural tradition, society and poverty. This paper also recommended possibilities that governments, societies, and communities should cooperate in a better way with each other to reduce child labor.


Child Labor, Poverty, Culture, Society

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJAREMS/v6-i2/3080