International Journal of Academic Research in Economics and Management Sciences


Volume 6, Issue 3 (2017)

Youngsters’ Opinions on Health, Health Tourism and Balneotherapy Tourism
Author(s): ANDREEA Botos, Aurelia-Felicia Stancioiu, Anamaria – Catalina Radu, Ion Pargaru      Pages: [1-14]

The way in which health is managed by demand agents needs to be thoroughly analysed, all the more so as this phenomenon represents an increasingly stronger stake for many audiences; the profound understanding of health, and the consequences of its management gradually leads to the branching of the concept, its physical, moral and social implications being intertwined with a vast area of aspects of life. The results of this study reflect how health is understood and managed by young people, but also their reporting to health tourism, with an emphasis on the consumption of balneotherapy tourism products; therefore, a quantitative marketing research was carried out on a sample of 129 people, aged 18-24, between December 2015 and May 2016, to determine how health is perceived and understood, and the opinions of young people regarding its treatment in balneotherapy destinations in Romania.


Health, Health Marketing, Health Tourism, Balneotherapy Tourism

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJAREMS/v6-i3/3140
Heavy-Tailed Distribution and Risk Management of Gold Returns
Author(s): Hao Shen, Xuanjin Meng, Rongjie Guo, Yuyan Zhao, Siyi Ding, Xiaojin Meng      Pages: [15-24]

Gold has been recognized as the most important precious metals in the human society. Other than as a medium of exchange, gold has been a consumption and investment product for a long history. It has been recognized a well-positive role in portfolio performance by many financial market practitioners. During the recent financial crisis, gold spot prices have exhibited significant volatility. Thus, effective risk management of gold spot prices play a crucial role for the industry. In this paper, we consider several types of heavy-tailed distributions and compare their performance in risk management of gold spot prices. Our results show the Skewed t distribution has the best goodness-of-fit in modelling the distribution of daily gold spot returns and generates suitable Value at Risk measures.


Skewed t Distribution, Goodness of Fit, Risk Management

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJAREMS/v6-i3/3147

This study aims to investigate consumers’ disposal behavior in terms of used or second-hand clothing. To this end, it explores the effects of awareness of the environment and recycling behavior on consumer clothing disposal behavior. Research data were collected through face-to-face surveys in Mu?. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, and structural equation modeling. According to the results, awareness of the environment and recycling behavior affect giving used clothing to family or friends, but do not affect donating used clothing to a charity. Also, recycling behavior is the weakest factor that affects disposal behavior. The comparison of the means of disposal behavior in terms of gender indicated that women show disposal behavior more than men do. This study contributes to the literature by revealing new insights about consumer disposal behavior.


Clothing Disposal Behavior, Sustainable Consumption, Recycling Behavior, Awareness of the Environment.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJAREMS/v6-i3/3148
The Causative Impact of Liquidity Management on Profitability of Banks in Pakistan: An Empirical Investigation
Author(s): Tanveer Bagh, Sadaf Razzaq, Tahir Azad, Idrees Liaqat, Muhammad Asif Khan      Pages: [153-170]

In the corporate finance milieu Liquidity Management and Profitability are considered to be one of the touchiest subjects. Liquidity management plays a dynamic role in determining the effectiveness of the business. Liquidity and profitability both are crucial for banks because it can influence the smooth operations of the banks; therefore it rightfully attracts a lot of attention from researcher. The central objective of the study is to scrutinize the impact of liquidity management on the profitability of banks Pakistan, covering period of 2006-2016. From audited annual financial reports secondary data was collected. The quantitative research designed and Descraptive statistics were worked out to examine impact of liquidity management on profitability. Banks profitability used as a dependent variable and to gauge banks profitability two proxies i.e. Return on assets (ROA) and Return on equity (ROE) have been used. Liquidity Management has been treated as an independent variable and to measure liquidity four key indicators of liquidity management i.e. Current Ratio and advances to deposit ratio (ADR), Cash deposit ratio CDR and Deposit Assets Ratio DAR were put in use. The results demonstrates that ADR, CDR and DAR has positive and significant impact on ROA whereas negative and significant impact on ROA. CR, ADR, CDR and DAR have positive and significant impact on ROE. Based upon key findings, all financial markets should have a comprehensively approved liquidity management procedures, practices and policies and mechanisms, exclusively tailored for their financial institutions and management should be responsible for aptly implementing these polices and strategies on priority basis.


Liquidity Management Practices, Profitability, Banks, Pakistan, Regression

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJAREMS/v6-i3/3151

The present study aims to investigate the relationship between principals' effectiveness and cultural intelligence and the levels of their innovation in the primary schools of eastern Tehran. This study was conducted within a descriptive framework and through correlation. The statistical population included all of the Principals of Eastern Tehran (n=335). From this population 181 individuals were selected through Morgan table and through random cluster sampling method .The data were collected by three questionnaires: (1) Innovation Standard Questionnaire designed by Saatchi and his colleagues (2012) with the reliability of .879; (2) the researcher made cultural intelligence questionnaire with 18 items and the reliability of .887; and (3) the researcher made cultural intelligence that included 22 items and the reliability of .954. The reliability coefficients of the questionnaire were obtained through Cronbach's alpha. The collected data were analyzed on the descriptive and inferential levels by SPSS and Pearson correlation coefficient as well as multiple regression and ANOVA. The results of this study revealed that there is a significant and positive relationship between cultural; intelligence and effectiveness. That is higher levels of cultural intelligence could lead to more effectiveness. In addition, there were positive and significant relationships between innovation and cultural intelligence as well as innovation and effectiveness. Finally, there were positive and significant relationships among innovation, cultural intelligence, and effectiveness. In other words, people with higher cultural intelligence and effectiveness would probably show more innovation. The results of regression analysis indicated that the innovation levels among the principals could be predicted by effectiveness and cultural intelligences. The Pearson correlation showed a significant and positive relationship among these three variables which implies that increasing the effectiveness and cultural intelligence could lead to improvement of innovation.


Cultural Intelligence, Innovation, Principals, Effectiveness

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJAREMS/v6-i3/3155
The Impact of Service Quality and Relationship Quality on E-Advertising Success: Knowledge Management as a Moderator
Author(s): Baker Alkhlaifat, Rukana Ghalib Alshaweesh      Pages: [189-213]

Existing studies have examined forced viewing of online advertisements and elucidates how consumers experience forced exposure circumstances in interactive environment while very few of this studies have really investigated the aspect of relationship quality and service quality in relation to online advertising. This study seeks to examine the effects of relationship quality and service quality on e-advertising in the advertising industry with the inclusion of knowledge management’s role as a moderator to measure its influence on the relationship. After using survey of 119 CEOs and managers of advertising agency companies in Jordan, the findings show that relationship quality (trust, commitment, and satisfaction) and e-advertising success are positively related. The findings also show that service quality from the perspective of service tangibility and service responsiveness have insignificant relationship with e-advertising success, meanwhile service quality from the perspective of service reliability is positively and significantly related with success of e-advertising. Knowledge management moderates the association between relationship quality and e-advertising success, but insignificant in the relationship between service quality and e-advertising success. This study suggests that advertising agency companies should improve in service and relationship quality by implementing and effective knowledge management system that will enhance the established trust and commitment with their online consumers, and lead to e-advertising success.


Service Quality, Relationship Quality, E-Advertising, Knowledge Management.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJAREMS/v6-i3/3156