International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and Development


Volume 6, Issue 4 (October, 2017)

Lifelong Learning for Sustainable Development in the Developing World
Author(s): Dama Mosweunyane, Keneilwe Molosi- France      Pages: [1-12]

This paper is necessitated to demonstrate that lifelong learning is important if developing countries are to realise sustainable development, which has proven to be illusive for a long time. Sustainable Development is a concept that is not fully understood by the ordinary citizens and some technocrats in the developing world. This situation therefore calls for its demystification through lifelong learning, which can be instrumental in educating the ordinary people about the denudation of resources that are necessary for continued human existence. The knowledge dearth about the concept is aggravated by the fact that Developing World is facing challenges of poverty and limited expertise for meeting requirements for Sustainable Development, such the education of people about the benefits of parsimonious consumption of their finite resources. This paper argues that the knowledge and skills deficit, which are partly a result of emerging technologies, have rendered lifelong learning most pertinent for the citizens of the developing world, if they are to maximally benefit from the economies of their countries. It is so because lack of knowledge on economic, political and social spheres is responsible for the maladies that are common in the Developing World, such as the depletion of resources that is aggravated by poverty and ignorance. The need for lifelong learning is identified as essential for global transformation because for development to be realised it is necessary for the people to have acquired the prerequisite skills, which when coupled with positive attitudes towards utilisation of resources render them responsive to emerging changes and challenges that are necessary for sustainable development. It is therefore imperative for people to be continually learning about apt measures of conserving resources, which are necessary for the development of the Third World. It has to be understood that for resources to be consumed scrupulously people should be informed through lifelong learning about the implications of overconsumption and depletion of such finite resources. The ordinary people should be educated to appreciate and be accommodative of reformist strategies that are important for the realisation of Sustainable Development that which can be relayed through heutagogical interventions.


Lifelong learning, sustainable development, poverty, developing world and Heutagogy.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARPED/v6-i4/3251
Effective Interaction Strategies In Teaching And Learning of English For Preschool Children
Author(s): Mazlina Che Mustafa, Maznah Ahmad      Pages: [13-40]

This study aims to identify effective English interaction strategies during teaching and learning sessions by preschool teachers in Kerian District, Perak. This study also identifies teachers' pedagogical skills in teaching and learning of English and the use of reinforcement and encouragement as a motivation for children to interact in English. Qualitative approach with case study design have been chosen in this study. The purposive sampling involves five preschool teachers who attended a series of English language proficiency courses in 2014. Three research instruments employed were interviews, observations and document analysis. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. The findings highlight that the use of opportunities provided by the teachers and effective strategies such as repetition, bilingual use and parallel talk can increase English interaction among preschool children. The study concludes that the use of various effective strategies, teachers’ pedagogical skills and the use of reinforcement and encouragement can enhance English interaction. The implication of this study may create awareness on the significance of preschool teachers to share their interaction skills and vary effective interaction strategies in English to improve the quality of teaching and learning for preschool children.


Effective Interactions strategies, teaching English, young children, motivation, second language

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARPED/v6-i4/3350
Confirmation of E-Waste Sustainable Management Instrument in the Community
Author(s): Hanifah Mahat, Mohmadisa Hashim, Yazid Saleh, Nasir Nayan, Saiyidatina Balkhis Norkhaidi      Pages: [41-56]

This article aims to build instruments for the purpose of measuring sustainability of e-waste management in the community. For the purposes of testing the validity and reliability of e-waste sustainability management tools in the community, Exploration Factor Analysis (EFA) and Validation Factor Analysis (CFA) are used. The respondents were 500 people from nine districts in Selangor. Sample selection is by district, based on cluster sampling according to population size and selection of respondents is made using simple random sampling method. The Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was conducted after the data was obtained and the item removal and repair process was done to form the study construction. Data were analyzed using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and reliability analysis. The results showed that the three main constructs of the study were the knowledge, attitude and practice of e-waste disposal. There are four sub-constructs for knowledge and practice of waste disposal i.e. environment, social, health, and economy. While for the construction of e-waste disposal it consists of two sub constructs, namely environment and economy. The reliability value obtained is greater than 0.7 for all tested constructs. The implications of the study suggest that knowledge, attitude, and e-waste disposal practices need to be applied in communities that manage e-waste sustainably.


Sustainability Management, E-Waste, Community, Exploratory Factor Analysis (Efa), Validation Factor Analysis (CFA)

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARPED/v6-i4/3365
What Causes Abandoned Residential Housing Projects in Malaysia? An Insight from Economic and Management Perspectives
Author(s): Wan Daud, Wan Norhayate, Zainol, Fakhrul Anwar, Mumin, Mohd Hasyim      Pages: [57-73]

In Malaysia, the issue and the phenomena of abandoned housing project in the country remained unsolved and become national issue discussed by various parties. The parties involved are blaming each other, the government blamed by the homebuyers due to its failure to enforce the law to developers. On the other hand, the developers blamed the bankers and the local authorities. The local authorities blamed the architect and the building engineers of their failure to submit the report work progress on the ongoing projects. Thus, this research aims to answer the question about the causes of abandoned housing project in Malaysia from economics and management theory perspectives supported by empirical studies by scholars. From the finding, both perspectives; economic theory and management theory revealed that the causes of abandoned residential housing projects in Malaysia can be caused by private developers, housing contractors, the government or authorities, financial institutions, economics crisis, and politics.


Abandoned Residential Housing Projects, Causes, Economic Theory, Management Theory, Malaysia.

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARPED/v6-i4/3366
ESL Learners’ Perspectives on the Use of Picture Series in Teaching Guided Writing
Author(s): Charanjit Kaur Swaran Singh, Tan Pei Mei, Maria Shu Abdullah, Wan Mazlini Othman, Wan Mazlini Othman, Nor Azmi Mostafa      Pages: [74-89]

The aim of the study was to investigate ESL learners’ perspectives towards the use of pictures series in teaching guided writing. The subjects involved were 30 learners. Experimental group consisted of 15 learners of 2B while control group consisted of 15 learners of 2D. Experimental group received 4 lessons of treatments in which picture series were used to teach writing while picture series were not used in teaching writing in control group. Pre-test and post-test were administrated to both groups. The instrument used to gather data for analysis was interview. Interview was carried out with selected learners from experimental group. The interview was transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. Learner’s perspectives were categorised into 2 themes namely writing skill and perspective on the use of picture series. The findings indicated that learners showed positive perspectives with the use of picture series in writing lessons. It enhanced learners’ motivation and interest in ESL classroom. Besides, picture series helped learners to brainstorm ideas during pre-writing stage. Learners were able to produce longer paragraph after the treatment session.


Picture Series, Guided Writing, Writing

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARPED/v6-i4/3463
Developing Themes of Guiding Principles to Foster Higher Order Thinking Skills in Teaching and Learning of Mathematics
Author(s): Nor’ain Mohd Tajudin, Marzita Puteh, Mazlini Adnan      Pages: [90-103]

The trend results of TIMSS and PISA shows that students' achievement is low in the field of mathematics, especially in answering questions that require Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS). Thus Malaysian Education Blueprint 2013-2025 suggested transitions in mathematics education from focusing on cognitive algorithm skills to the implementation of HOTS in teaching and learning of mathematics. A holistic framework in the form of comprehensive processes of fostering HOTS in mathematics teaching and learning is needed to guide teachers in implementation suitable activities in the classroom. Therefore, this research is intended to develop a Guiding Principles of Fostering Higher Order Thinking Skills (GP-HOTS) in teaching and learning of mathematics for secondary school students. Specifically, this article discusses the analysis of HOTS inculcation development in teaching and learning in general and in mathematics education to generate items and themes for GP-HOTS. This qualitative analysis document involves two strategies. Firstly, the electronic databases and journals used to find related articles. In addition, the journals related to HOTS are analyzed to identify more relevant journals. Keywords used for search is HOTS, creative thinking, critical thinking, methods/strategies/techniques for teaching in the 21st century, and the methods/strategies/techniques for effective teaching. At the second stage, the method of snowballing is used to identify the items and themes for GP-HOTS. The themes and items for GP-HOTS were then tested for the content validity and reliability by determing the content validity and the alpha Cronbach indices. The results showed that there are seven main themes of how teachers can foster HOTS in teaching and learning of mathematics namely determining the learning outcomes, planning questioning strategies, practicing active learning, developing habits of mind, practicing reflective thinking, implementing optimally assessment for learning and integrating information, communication and technology. The themes and its items have satisfied level of content validity indices for the face and content validities as well as revealed excellent acceptable level of reliability index. Those themes and it items which contributed to GP-HOTS are important in helping to improve teachers’ mathematical knowledge for teaching, hence creating futuristic minded students.


Higher Order Thinking Skills; Secondary School, Teaching And Learning Of Mathematics

Full Text :PDF DOI: 10.6007/IJARPED/v6-i4/3464